Latest Breast Cancer Research

Latest Research: – 1

Level of Awareness on Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Market Women in Ido Community, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria 

Aim: The study assessed the level of awareness on breast cancer and practice of breast self-examination among market women in Ido community, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Study Design: It made use of a descriptive research design.

Place of Study: The study was conducted at the King’s market arena, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State.

Methodology: A sample size of hundred market women was used using a purposive sampling technique. Hundred questionnaires were printed and distributed. The instrument for data collection used for this study was a self-designed questionnaire consisting of closed and open-ended questions both in English and Yoruba languages. In cases of market women who are illiterate, the questions were read out to them. All questionnaires were collected at the spot to avoid loss and a hundred percent of distributed questionnaires were retrieved. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics i.e. the use of tables and representation in percentages, frequency count, bar chart, pie chart and histogram, thereby summarizing the data into more understandable forms. This was followed by interpretation of data.

Results: It was revealed that majority (60%) of the market women claimed to be aware of breast cancer with medical personnel (51%) being the highest source of awareness with a recorded low history (32%) of breast cancer. Meanwhile, the majority are not aware of the causes and symptoms of breast cancer but declared it can endanger the self-image of women with the majority (42%) not knowing their risk of developing breast cancer. The majority (70%) has heard about breast self-examination but only a few (40%) practices it regularly.

Conclusion: Despite several studies done on breast cancer in Nigeria, there is still need for urgent optimization and remodelling of practices towards the prevention of breast cancer. There should be a continuous awareness program on breast cancer nationwide. Breast self-examination should also be encouraged for early detection.

Latest Research: – 2

Human Drug Targets Identification in Breast Cancer by Computationally Based DNA Microarray Analysis 

Aims: The availability of large cDNA datasets make it feasible to find new genetic variants. In this study, we focused to perform microarray differential analysis of breast cancer dataset to reveal genetic mutants of this disease.

Methodology: Human drug targets of breast cancer (BC) was found by comparing normal breast tissue samples and breast invasive cancer samples using GSE31138 DNA microarray dataset. The dataset was accessed from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) NCBI. The differential analysis was performed using “R” software and Bioconductor packages.

Results: In differential expressed genes (DEGs), LIFR and PSMD10 were significant BC-linked genes. Matrix analysis of these DEGs showed interdependencies between the probe levels of two groups. Gene ontology and interactomic analysis explored the functional enriched map. These critical protein targets are involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, cell morphogenesis, anti-apoptosis, and positive regulation of cell proliferation and their dysregulation are responsible for tumorigenesis.

Conclusion: These protein targets not only reveal the understandings about BC but can also progress into biological markers for diagnosis or treatment.

Latest Research: – 3

Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Brazilian Women without Metastasis to Axillary Lymph Nodes: Ten-Year Survival and Prognostic Factors 

Aims: To determine the 10-year overall survival (OS) in triple-negative (TN) and non-TN breast cancer (BC) patients, and to identify associated independent prognostic factors.
Study Design: Descriptive and survival.
Place and Duration of Study: Pathology Division at National Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1992-1996.
Methodology: Population: 348 women patients with invasive ductal carcinoma without lymph node metastasis. Analyzed variables: age, treatment, surgery type, tumor size, skin involvement, histological grade, vascular invasion, estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67 and p53. Statistical analysis performed: Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank test, and multivariate Cox models.
Results: 27% of the studied women were categorized as TNBC and 73%, as non-TNBC. The former showed higher frequency of age <50yr, preoperative chemotherapy, tumours>5cm, high grade, vascular invasion, and positive p53, (P=.05). Ten-year OS among TNBC patients was 61.6%, and 70.1% for non-TNBC patients (P=.058). Survival was higher in TNBC patients treated with partial surgeries, tumours ≤5cm, without skin involvement, low grade, and Ki-67 negative (P=.05). Among non-TNBC patients, higher survival was observed in patients without skin involvement, low grade, no vascular invasion, and p53 negative, (P=.05). Cox modelization showed a 2-fold higher death risk for TNBC patients aged ≥50yr, about 2.5-fold higher risk related to preoperative chemotherapy, high grade tumor and skin involvement, and a 3.0-fold higher risk for Ki-67 positive patients (P=.05). For non-TNBC patients, a 2.0-fold increased death risk was verified in patients with skin involvement and vascular invasion (P=.05).
Conclusion: TNBC patients showed a worse prognosis and survival when compared to non-TNBC patients. A worse 10-yr survival among TNBC patients was associated with age ≥50yr, preoperative chemotherapy, skin involvement, high histological grade, and Ki-67 positive tumours. For non-TNBC patients, the worst prognosis was related to skin involvement and vascular invasion. These predictors need to be further validating by other studies.

Latest Research: – 4

Breast Cancer in Muslim Countries: Risk Reduction Strategies 

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in western countries and is becoming significant in many developing countries. It is the most common cancer and the primary cause of cancer-related mortality in women in Muslim countries. The incidence of breast cancer ranges from low of 20.4 to high of 78.7 cases per 100,000 in Tajikistan and Lebanon, respectively. The mortality ranges from 8.7 to 25.9 cases per 100,000 in Libya and Nigeria, respectively. The incidence in Muslim countries is low compared to the incidence in US which is at 92.9 cases per 100,000, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) data from 2012. However, mortality in US remains low at 14.9 cases due to early detection and better treatment. Breast cancer incidence is increasing in Muslim countries. Greater number of patients present at a younger age and a later stage as compared to the western countries. The major risk factors increase the incidence of breast cancer include dietary habits, physical activity, weight, reproductive patterns, breast feeding, and supplemental hormone use. A significant decrease in the incidence and mortality in Muslim countries can be achieved by a program incorporating simple risk reduction measures, early detection strategies and specific medical intervention in high-risk women. This will require a cooperative effort of the community, physicians and government.

Latest Research: – 4

The Prosigna gene expression assay and responsiveness to adjuvant cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy in premenopausal high-risk patients with breast cancer

Background: The PAM50-based (Prosigna) risk of recurrence (ROR) score and intrinsic subtypes are prognostic for women with high-risk breast cancer. We investigate the predictive ability of Prosigna regarding the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide-based adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal patients with high-risk breast cancer.

Methods: Prosigna assays were performed on the NanoString platform in tumours from participants in Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) 77B, a four-arm trial that randomized premenopausal women with high-risk early breast cancer to no systemic treatment, levamisole, oral cyclophosphamide (C) or cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF).

Results: In total, this retrospective analysis included 460 women (40% of the 1146 randomized patients). The continuous Prosigna ROR score was prognostic in the no systemic treatment group (unadjusted P < 0.001 for disease-free survival (DFS), P = 0.001 for overall survival (OS)). No statistically significant interaction of continuous ROR score and treatment on DFS and OS was found. A highly significant association was observed between intrinsic subtypes and C/CMF treatment for DFS (Pinteraction = 0.003 unadjusted, P = 0.001 adjusted) and OS (Pinteraction = 0.04). In the adjusted analysis treatment with C/CMF was associated with a reduced risk of DFS events in patients with basal-like (hazard ratio (HR) 0.14; 95% CI 0.06; 0.32) and luminal B (HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.27; 0.84) subtypes but not in patients with Human epidermal growth factor receptor-enriched (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.56; 1.95) or luminal A (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.32; 1.16) subtypes.

Conclusion: The Prosigna ROR score and intrinsic subtypes were prognostic in high-risk premenopausal patients with breast cancer, and intrinsic subtypes identify high-risk patients with or without major benefit from adjuvant C/CMF treatment.

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