Efficient cationic flocculant MHCS-g-P(AM-DAC) synthesized by UV-induced polymerization for algae removal
The graft polymer flocculant of chitosan particularly, maleoyl chitosan-graft-poly(acrylamide–acryloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium ion chloride) [MHCS-g-P(AM-DAC)], was ready by UV initiation to boost the solubility and action potency of chitosan. Flocculating properties for alga removal were studied consistently. the results of parameters like chemical compound concentration, MHCS content, illumination time, photoinitiator concentration, cationic degree, pH and attachment potency over synthesis method of MHCS-g-P(AM-DAC) were studied. The characterization of obtained MHCS-g-P(AM-DAC) were distributed through totally different analytic techniques. The influences of indefinite quantity, pH, and G worth on the flocculating properties were additionally investigated to support that MHCS-g-P(AM-DAC) was simpler than organic flocculant (CPAM) and inorganic agent (PFS and PAC) on alga removal. The action mechanisms of MHCS-g-P(AM-DAC) were determinate by obtained alphabetic character values. 
Microwave-assisted low-temperature hydrothermal treatment of red alga (Gracilaria lemaneiformis) for production of levulinic acid and protoctist hydrochar
In this study, red algae (Gracilaria lemaneiformis) garbage with high sugar content was valorized into levulinic acid (LA) and protoctist hydrochar through microwave-assisted low-temperature hydrothermal treatment in dilute acid resolution. numerous parameters together with treatment temperature (160–200 °C), interval (1–40 min), acid concentration (0–0.6 M), and biomass-to-liquid quantitative relation (1%–10%, w/v) were examined. The energy potency and carbon recovery of the planned method were investigated. beneath the experimental conditions of fifty (w/v) biomass loading, 0.2 M H2SO4, 180 °C, and 20 min, the very best levulinic acid yield of sixteen.3 wt% was made. The ensuing hydrochar showed just about 45–55% energy yield and better heating values of 19–25 MJ kg−1. The energy potency of this study (1.31 × 10−6 g LA/J) was admire those of the standard hydrothermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass, whereas the interval (20 min) was abundant shorter with a high carbon recovery (73.3%). 
Rapid and economical recovery of C-phycocyanin from extremely mirky Spirulina platensis protoctist victimization stirred fluidized bed action activity
An economical method for the direct extraction of CPC (Cyanobacteria-phycocyanin) from extremely cloudy Spirulina platensis cell stuff that uses stirred fluidized bed sorption (SFBA) technique has been developed. contour DEAE (ion exchange) adsorbent was accustomed valuate the optimum sorption and extraction conditions of CPC in little packed beds. once the SFBA method was utilized to extract CPC from tenth (dry weight, g/mL) noncontinuous alga, dynamic binding potency, recovery yield and purification issue of CPC were determined to be sixty four.25%, 59.42% and 3.0, severally, in an exceedingly single step. However, because the extremely targeted feedstock was diluted to fifteen, dynamic binding potency and recovery yield of CPC will increase to ninety two.84% and 90.64%, severally, with a purification issue of two.7. A comparison of purification performance of CPC has been created between expanded bed sorption (EBA) and stirred fluidized bed adsorption (SFBA) processes. Our experimental results showed that the productivity of CPC in SFBA method (7.52 mg/mL) was over that the traditional EBA method (6.71 mg/mL). Therefore, it can be complete that the SFBA technique is technically and economically advantageous over the traditional techniques once coping with extremely cloudy feedstock. 
The algae’s third eye
Just like land plants, alga use daylight as AN energy supply. several alga actively move within the water; they will approach the sunshine or move far from it. For this they use special sensors (photoreceptors) with that they understand light-weight. 
Inferior Assimilation of Algae-based Diets by echinoderm echinoderm genus scabra below Laboratory Condition Expressed by Stable atom combining Model
Aim: to analyze the dietary preferences of echinoderm Holothuria scabra fed with protoctist food sources like Sargassum bacciferum, Fucus, Spirulina, genus Ulva together with marine pellet below laboratory condition. Carbon stable atom technique (δ13C) was wont to higher perceive the assimilation of various dietary food sources.
Study Design: A model approach was undertaken wherever twenty four experimental aquaria were founded, every having juvenile H. scabra. These aquaria were unintegrated into four completely different dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. (SGP treatment= Sargassum bacciferum + marine pellet, FCP treatment= rockweed + marine pellet, SPP treatment= Spirulina + marine pellet, ULP treatment= genus Ulva + marine pellet).
Place and period of Study: Marine Experimental Ecology Unit (MAREE), Leibnitz Centre for Tropical Marine analysis, Bremen, Germany, between Jan and Oct 2017.
Methodology: we tend to enclosed twenty four echinoderm juveniles for conducting the feeding trial. CN contents, C/N quantitative relation and carbon stable isotopes were measured in food sources also as in H. scabra body wall. the expansion of H. scabra was conjointly monitored. Stable atom commixture model was wont to calculate the precise food preference below laboratory condition.
Results: The results of carbon stable isotopes (δ13C) of echinoderm body wall exhibited depleted values that are considerably completely different (ANOVA, P˂0.05) from all the dietary treatments (SGP, FCP, SPP, ULP) thereby suggesting inferior assimilation of food ingredients. The poor performance of elect food sources (algae and marine pellet) towards the expansion of echinoderm was clearly mirrored within the knowledge (ANOVA, P>0.05).
Conclusion: so, it’s assumed that some further food supply co-existed at intervals the model and will have contributed to their food uptake, most likely sediment microbes that need more clarification. 
 Chen L, Sun Y, Sun W, Shah KJ, Xu Y, Zheng H. Efficient cationic flocculant MHCS-gP (AM-DAC) synthesized by UV-induced polymerization for algae removal. Separation and Purification Technology. 2019 Feb 8;210:10-9. (web link)
 Cao L, Iris KM, Cho DW, Wang D, Tsang DC, Zhang S, Ding S, Wang L, Ok YS. Microwave-assisted low-temperature hydrothermal treatment of red seaweed (Gracilaria lemaneiformis) for production of levulinic acid and algae hydrochar. Bioresource technology. 2019 Feb 1;273:251-8. (web link)
 Chen KH, Wang SS, Show PL, Hsu SL, Chang YK. Rapid and efficient recovery of C-phycocyanin from highly turbid Spirulina platensis algae using stirred fluidized bed ion exchange chromatography. Separation and Purification Technology. 2019 Jan 31;209:636-45. (web link)
 The algae’s third eye
Date: January 11, 2019
Source: University of Würzburg (web link)
 Inferior Assimilation of Algae-based Diets by Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra under Laboratory Condition Expressed by Stable Isotope Mixing Model
Ecophysiology Research Group, Department of Ecology, Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research ZMT, Fahrenheitstraße 6, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
Ecophysiology Research Group, Department of Ecology, Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research ZMT, Fahrenheitstraße 6, 28359 Bremen, Germany. (web link)