Analysis of Awareness and Adaptation to global climate change among Farmers within the Sahel Savannah Agro-ecological Zone of Borno State, Nigeria
This study examined the attention and adaptation to global climate change among farmers within the Sahel Savannah agro-ecological zone of Borno State, Nigeria. knowledge for the study were collected from 225 respondents designated through the Multi-stage sampling technique. A socio-economic profile of the respondents indicated that forty eight.89% were on top of forty five years old and majority (78.23%) had academic qualifications below the school level. The study conjointly disclosed that a majority (79.12%) of the respondents were small-scale farm holders and over [*fr1] (67.56%) had fewer than seven extension contacts throughout the 2010 farming season. Associate in Nursing analysis of the supply of global climate change awareness disclosed that majority (82.22%) of the respondents was tuned in to the development of global climate change. Of that range, educational activity and friends/neighbors were graded high as supply of awareness concerning global climate change, accounting for forty seven.57% and 232.43% severally. Analysis of adaptation practices utilized by the respondents showed that planting before rains (97.78%) and planting of canopy crops eighty.00% were used most. Analysis of the relationships between some designated socio-economic variables and also the use of global climate change adaptation measures disclosed that academic qualification and the range of extension contacts were the foremost necessary factors influencing the utilization of adaptation measures among the respondents. the most constraints on global climate change adaptation measures by farmers within the study space were poor money resources (86.67%) and inconvenience of weather info (77.78%). The study complete that the bulk of farmers were tuned in to global climate change and its consequences. The study conjointly complete that though the bulk of farmers were engaged in farming practices aimed toward global climate change adaptation, they we tend tore strained by some factors; thus we counseled that extension education ought to be reinforced to spice up farmers’ awareness of global climate change and prepare them for adaptation measures which appropriate/indigenous technologies be promoted for adaptation by farmers. 
Policy Implications of Droughts and Floods Adaptation on home Crop Production and Food Security in Southern Malawi
Aims: This paper quantified the contribution of drought and flood connected adaptation methods on social unit food production and food security.
Place and length of Study: it absolutely was conducted in lowland and highland areas of southern Malawi and information was collected from at random sampled households employing a semi-structured form.
Methodology: The paper utilized a Translog production operate and a Tobit model to see the results of drought and flood connected adaptation methods on food production and food security. regarding one thousand social units were at random hand-picked to participate within the household survey. half of the respondents were from lowland areas whereas the remaining fiftieth was from highland areas of Southern Malawi.
Results: Results show that households in the study area adapted through irrigation farming, income-generating activities, crop diversification and shifting planting dates. Irrigation farming significantly increased food production by 8% and 6% and improved food availability by 24% and 19% in low and highland areas, respectively (p<0.05). On the other hand, shifting crop-planting dates reduced food production by 24% and 37% and food availability by 20% and 11% at 5% level of significance in low and highland areas, respectively.
Conclusion: This paper concluded that adaptation strategies have very interesting and significant policy implications on household crop production and food security. It is therefore suggested that decisions by policy/decision makers on household food production and availability should strive at mainstreaming droughts and floods related adaptation. 
Evaluating global climate change Mitigation and Adaptation Potential of Conservation Agriculture in Semi-arid Tropics of Southern India
Aims: As temperature change connected downfall and temperature variability is being more and more knowledgeable about within the weekday regions, we tend to assessed temperature change mitigation and adaptation potential of Conservation Agriculture (CA) by finding out effects of minimum tillage (MT) and residue management practices on rain water use potency (RWUE), soil wetness, runoff, energy use and CO2 emission in 2 maize-legume cropping systems.
Study Design: The experiment was arranged call at split-split plot style with four replications.
Place and length of Study: The study was conducted at the International Crops analysis Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) farm, Patancheru, Telangana, Asian country throughout 2010-11 and 2011-12.
Methodology: RWUE was calculated as maize equivalent yield divided by downfall received throughout the crop season. Integrated digital runoff and soil loss observance unit (IDRSMU) was accustomed live runoff. Soil wetness content was measured exploitation the measure methodology (0-30 cm depth) and nucleon probe (60-90 cm depth). The soil organic carbon was analyzed following the Walkley-Black methodology . The diesel consumption in MT and standard tillage (CT) was calculable following Downs and Hansen (http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs) and emission of carbonic acid gas was calculable per EPA, 2009 .
Results: Tillage and residue management practices failed to show vital result on RWUE except; CT having considerably higher RWUE over MT throughout 2011-12. result of cropping systems on RWUE was vital however variable throughout the 2 years of study. MT-RT (minimum tillage- residue retained) reduced total seasonal runoff by twenty eight.62% and 80.22% compared to CT-RR (conventional tillage- residue removed) in 2010-11 and 2011-12, severally. Similarly, MT-RT reduced fresh water loss and peak rate of runoff compared to CT-RR in each the years of study. throughout 2010, MT-RT had higher total soil wetness (v/v) within the 0-90 cm soil depth in sole similarly as intercropped maize compared to CT-RR, however, throughout 2011 MT-RT had higher total soil wetness in sole maize solely. As compared to CT, while, MT improved SOC in 0-15 cm depth however down slightly in 15-30 cm depth. RT (residue retained) improved SOC in 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths compared to residue removal (RR). MT-RT had higher or equal SOC in 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil depths compared to CT-RR in each the maize-legume cropping systems. MT saved energy such as forty one.49 l of diesel per square measure annually compared to CT. Similarly, MT emitted one hundred ten.79 kilo less carbonic acid gas annually on per square measure basis compared to CT thanks to reduced diesel use.
Conclusion: CA, once adopted by following smart agricultural practices and refined to suit the native conditions, may emerge as property production system for temperature change mitigation and adaptation of dryland cropping systems in semi-arid tropics of southern Asian country. 
Investigating the practical and Structural Adaptation Changes of Biofilm Communities Toward higher Azo-dye waste Treatment
Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the useful and structural adaptation changes in 3 biofilm communities purifying azo-dye contaminated waste.
Study Design: 3 lab-scale sand biofilters were made for treating waste with azo-dye. The dye amaranth was chosen as model toxic and its concentration was bit by bit hyperbolic within the waste from ten mg/L up to fifty five mg/L. The biofilters functioned for twenty six days.
Place and period of Study: Laboratory of Environmental biotechnology, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, 2011-2013 year.
Methodology: The residual amaranth concentration, potency and rate of its removal were monitored. The nosology of the useful structure of the biofilms is predicated on a cross analysis of information from culturable, culture-independent (fluorescent unchanged coupling – FISH) and digital (digital image processing) techniques.
Results: The potency of the biofilters varied from eighty eight.35% up to ninety five.97%. 3 phases of the azo-detoxification method were distinguished.
In the early part of functioning (0-191 h) culturable Pseudomonas|bacteria genus}|bacteria genus} sp. had key role in azo-degradation as their a part of the community was concerning seventieth for the 3 biofilters.
In the late part of functioning (191-455 h) the biofilters eliminated a pair of times higher concentration of amaranth. The average for the a part of the microorganisms from g. Pseudomonas, calculated on the bottom of FISH, remained unchanged (42%). at the same time the cultivation techniques showed considerably attenuated a part of genus Pseudomonas sp. (4-10%). This recommend a crucial role of the unculturable genus Pseudomonas sp.
In the ending amount (455-623 h) the speed of amaranth removal was hyperbolic with twentieth. grammatical zones with high concentration of bacterium from g. genus Pseudomonas were found within the biofilms that indicated formation of cooperative relationships.
Conclusion: This study shows three-stage mechanism of development of amaranth degradation potential. It includes ordered importance of culurable, unculturable bacterium and cooperation within the g. Pseudomonas. 
Climate Change Diplomacy- equipment for global climate change Mitigation and Adaptation: a mirrored image within the Context of Asian country
The objective of this analysis is especially to look at this trend of temperature change diplomacy carry over by the govt of Asian nation. This concentrate on effectiveness of temperature change (CC) Diplomacy for the climate change victim nation like Asian nation. Some interconnected problems self-addressed here are: (i) essence of temperature change diplomacy for the developing nations principally stricken by climate iatrogenic disasters; (ii) performance of Asian nation within the bilateral and four-sided negotiations. The findings of the analysis recommend that, temperature change diplomacy of the govt of Asian nation isn’t formally intentional however to influence foreign governments and/or four-sided establishments towards extending highest support in mitigating and adapting the climate change impact. it’s apparent that, temperature change diplomacy doesn’t appear to possess emerged as Associate in Nursing integral element of its negotiation to enrich the national efforts through hold up with international affiliations. The paper is over with a roadmap to form the temperature change diplomacy simpler so Asian nation may avail optimum help from the international community/alliance to mitigate and adopt climate change for reduction of vulnerability of the community recurrently stricken by climate change iatrogenic disasters. With the prominence of temperature change diplomacy on the highest, Asian nation ought to have a method of enjoying a pro-active role at the international level in coming back years. Such strategy would facilitate Asian nation to draw on the world help in favor of temperature change mitigation and adaptation. 
 Idrisa, Y. L., Ogunbameru, B. O., Ibrahim, A. A., & Bawa, D. B. (2012). Analysis of Awareness and Adaptation to Climate Change among Farmers in the Sahel Savannah Agro-ecological Zone of Borno State, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 2(2), 216-226. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2012/1475
 Pangapanga, P., Jumbe, C. B., Kanyanda, S., & Thangalimodzi, L. (2012). Policy Implications of Droughts and Floods Adaptation on Household Crop Production and Food Security in Southern Malawi. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 2(3), 245-258. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2012/2051
 A. Jat, R., P. Wani, S., Pathak, P., Singh, P., L. Sahrawat, K., Chander, G., & Sudi, R. S. (2015). Evaluating Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Potential of Conservation Agriculture in Semi-arid Tropics of Southern India. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 5(4), 324-338. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2015/18479
 Belouhova, M., & Topalova, Y. (2016). Investigating the Functional and Structural Adaptation Changes of Biofilm Communities Toward Better Azo-dye Wastewater Treatment. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 6(4), 309-318. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2016/27466
 Islam, M. (2014). Climate Change Diplomacy- Apparatus for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: A Reflection in the Context of Bangladesh. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 4(1), 115-132. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2014/9174