Digital Green: Participatory video for agricultural extension
Digital inexperienced could be a research that seeks to air targeted agricultural data to little and marginal farmers in Republic of India victimization digital video. The distinctive parts of digital inexperienced are (1) a democratic method for content production, (2) a domestically generated digital video information, (3) human-mediated instruction for dissemination and coaching, and (4) controlled sequencing to initiate a replacement community. in contrast to some systems that expect data or communication technology alone to deliver helpful data to marginal farmers, digital inexperienced works with existing, people-based extension systems and aims to amplify their effectiveness. whereas video provides some extent of focus, it’s folks and social dynamics that ultimately create digital inexperienced work. native social networks are broached to attach farmers with experts; the fun of showing “on TV” motivates farmers; and homophily is exploited to reduce the space between teacher and learner. in a very four-month trial involving sixteen villages (1070 households), digital inexperienced was seen to extend adoption of sure agriculture practices by an element of six to seven times over classical person-only agriculture extension. The hardware investment was a TV and a DVD-player per village, and one camera and laptop shared among all sixteen villages. These results are terribly preliminary, however promising. 
Agricultural Extension: Good Intentions and Hard Realities
What concerns lead policymakers to speculate in agricultural extension as a key public responsibility, and what factors and agency incentives justify variations in extension system performance? to assist answer these queries, this text provides a framework outlining farmers’ demand for info, the general public product character of extension services, and therefore the structure and political attributes poignant the performance of extension systems. This abstract framework is employed to investigate many extension modalities and their probably and actual effectiveness. The analysis highlights the potency gains that may return from domestically localised delivery systems with incentive structures supported for the most part non-public provision, though in most poorer countries extension services can stay publically funded. 
In this chapter we have a tendency to analyze the issues that lead policy manufacturers to undertake extension investments as a key public responsibility, also because the complicated set of things and intra-agency incentives that designate why totally different extension systems’ performance varies. consequently, the chapter provides a abstract framework outlining farmers’ demand for info, the welfare economic characterizations of extension services, and also the structure and political attributes that govern the performance of extension systems. The framework is employed to look at many extension modalities and to research their possible and actual effectiveness. Specifically, the modalities reviewed embrace “training and visit” extension, localized systems, “fee-for-service” and privatized extension, and farmer-field-schools. The chapter additionally provides a discussion of method problems per the assessment of extension outcomes, and a review of a number of the recent empirical literature on extension impact. The chapter emphasizes the potency gains which will return from regionally localized delivery systems with incentive structures supported mostly non-public provision that in most countries will still be in public funded. In wealthier countries, and for specific higher financial gain farmer teams, extension systems can possible evolve into fee-for-service organizations. 
History of American Agricultural Research
A “History of Agricultural Experimentation within the u. s., 1607–1925”, by A. C. True, has simply been issued as Miscellaneous Publication No. 251 by the u. s. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. this is often the third official treatise during a series meant to provide a comprehensive outline of the history of agricultural education, extension and analysis within the u. s., the 2 antecedently issued having proscribed agricultural instruction in colleges and schools, and also the history of agricultural extension work severally. the current volume naturally begins with the work of personal people together with some story data, and shows however they and organizations like the geologic surveys and also the authority, themselves very little involved with analysis, ordered the foundations of public agencies for agricultural investigation. it’ll be noted with interest that the primary governmental movement to assist agriculture was created once President of the United States was president, whereas Federal State aid for the agricultural experiment stations, supported by pioneers everywhere the country, was secured by Hatch in 1887 by the passage of associate degree Act bearing his name. The fast development of analysis from this era up to 1913, the consequences of the nice War and also the agricultural depression of 1921–25 are then delineate intimately. A list of quite 300 references is appended. These are restricted to sources of knowledge employed in the text and to list sketches of a number of the leading figures within the earlier periods of agricultural development in the u. s.. 
Assessing Agricultural Extension Professionals Opinion towards Sustainable Agriculture in Bangladesh
Aims: The farmers of People’s Republic of Bangladesh is manufacturing further food for Brobdingnagian variety of individuals by imprudent use of agro-chemicals thereby damaging the scheme and hampering the property. For checking this sick observe, it needs shifting of excellent observe to the farmers by the consultant though data gap exists relating to extension professionals opinion towards property agriculture. the most target of this study is to draw the extension skilled opinion towards property agriculture in People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
Study Design: A descriptive survey analysis style is followed for the study and armoured form is that the main instrument of the research.
Place and length of Study: information were collected from the Sub Assistant Agriculture Officers (SAAOs) beneath the department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) of 5 Upazilas (the lowest administrative body of the country) of five Districts. The Upazilas were Sadar Upazila of Gazipur District, Sadar Upazila of Gaibandha District, Kaliganj Upazila of Jhenaidah District, Chakaria Upazila of Cox’s Bazar District and Jhuraicharri Upazila of Rangamati District.
Methodology: a complete variety of a hundred sixty five SAAOs of the five Upazilas were the population and out of the collected form from the SAAOs, a hundred and fifteen were treated because the sample of the study. The form was developed in line with the target of the analysis. For decision making the opinion 5 purpose Likert scale was used. multiple correlation analysis was administered exploitation SPSS for locating out the influence of extension professionals socio-demographic characteristics on their opinion towards property agriculture.
Results: The extension professionals had moderate to low level of opinion towards property agriculture. 3 characteristics (eg. in-service coaching, in-service property agriculture coaching and environmental consciousness) had influence on the opinion in line with the regression results.
Conclusion: there’s a requirement to rearrange differing kinds of in-service coaching associated with property agriculture. Future analysis is required with incorporation of alternative variables together with this one to urge a lot of strong results. 
 Gandhi, R., Veeraraghavan, R., Toyama, K. and Ramprasad, V., 2007, December. Digital green: Participatory video for agricultural extension. In 2007 International conference on information and communication technologies and development (pp. 1-10). IEEE. (Web Link)
 Anderson, J.R. and Feder, G., 2004. Agricultural extension: Good intentions and hard realities. The World Bank Research Observer, 19(1), pp.41-60. (Web Link)
 Anderson, J.R. and Feder, G., 2007. Agricultural extension. Handbook of agricultural economics, 3, pp.2343-2378. (Web Link)
 History of American Agricultural Research
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 Hasan, S., Turin, M., Ghosh, M. and Khalil, M. (2017) “Assessing Agricultural Extension Professionals Opinion towards Sustainable Agriculture in Bangladesh”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 17(1), pp. 1-13. doi: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/33338. (Web Link)