Successful adaptation to climate change across scales
Climate change impacts and responses area unit presently discovered in physical and ecological systems. Adaptation to those impacts is more and more being discovered in each physical and ecological systems yet as in human changes to resource availableness and risk at completely different spacial and social scales. we have a tendency to review the character of adaptation and also the implications of various spacial scales for these processes. we have a tendency to define a group of normative appraising criteria for decision making the success of diversifications at completely different scales. we have a tendency to argue that parts of effectiveness, efficiency, equity Associate in Nursingd legitimacy area unit vital in decision making success in terms of the property of development pathways into an unsure future. we have a tendency to additional argue that every of those parts of decision-making is implicit at intervals presently developed situations of socio-economic futures of each emission trajectories and adaptation, tho’ with completely different weight. the method by that diversifications area unit to be judged at completely different scales can involve new and difficult institutional processes. 
Social Capital, Collective Action, and Adaptation to Climate Change
The effects of ascertained and future changes in climate are spatially and socially differentiated. The impacts of future changes are going to be felt notably by resource-dependent communities through a mess of primary and secondary effects cascading through natural and social systems. as long as the globe is progressively sweet-faced with risks of temperature change that are at the boundaries of human experience3, there’s AN pressing must learn from past and gift adaptation ways to grasp each the processes by that adaptation takes place and therefore the limitations of the assorted agents of modification – states, markets, and civil society – in these processes. Societies have inherent capacities to adapt to temperature change. during this article, I argue that these capacities are certain up in their ability to act together. 
Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?
While there’s a recognised have to be compelled to adapt to dynamic weather conditions, there’s AN rising discourse of limits to such adaptation. Limits square measure historically analysed as a group of changeless thresholds in biological, economic or technological parameters. This paper contends that limits to adaptation square measure endogenous to society and thence conditional ethics, knowledge, attitudes to risk and culture. we tend to review insights from history, social science and psychological science of risk, economic science and politics to develop four propositions regarding limits to adaptation. First, any limits to adaptation depend upon the final word goals of adaptation underpinned by numerous values. Second, adaptation needn’t be restricted by uncertainty around future foresight of risk. Third, social and individual factors limit adaptation action. Fourth, systematic evaluation of loss of places and culture disguises real, old however subjective limits to adaptation. we tend to conclude that these problems with values and ethics, risk, data and culture construct social limits to adaptation, however that these limits square measure mutable. 
Adaptation pathways of global wheat production: Importance of strategic adaptation to climate change
Agricultural adaptation is important to scale back the negative impacts of temperature change on crop yields and to take care of food production. However, few studies have assessed the course of adaptation together with the progress of temperature change in every of this major food manufacturing countries. Adaptation pathways, that describe the temporal sequences of variations, are useful for illustrating the temporal arrangement and intensity of the difference needed. Here we have a tendency to gift adaptation pathways within the current major wheat-producing countries, supported sequent introduction of the minimum adaptation measures necessary to take care of current wheat yields through the twenty first century. we have a tendency to thought of 2 adaptation options: (i) increasing irrigation infrastructure; and (ii) shift crop varieties and developing new heat-tolerant varieties. we discover that disagreeence|the variation} pathways differ markedly among the countries. the difference pathways are sensitive to each the climate model uncertainty and natural variability of the climate system, and also the degree of sensitivity differs among countries. Finally, the negative impacts of temperature change might be qualified by implementing variations steady in keeping with forecasts of the required future adaptations, as compared to missing the suitable temporal arrangement to implement variations. 
Analysis of Cashew Farmers Adaptation to Climate Change in South-Western Nigeria
Aims: The study used cross-sectional information obtained from Oyo and Osun state, South-western African country, to explore cashew farmers’ awareness and perception of temperature change, also on ascertain the difference methods they adopt to address the consequences of temperature change.
Methodology: Qualitative approaches were taken to get data required to handle every of the precise objectives. The responses were analysed descriptively and bestowed within the variety of tables, bar and chart. Chi-square check of independence was used to check the hypotheses.
Results: Survey results indicated that just about all the respondents were responsive to temperature change before the time this survey was conducted. Moreover, an outsized proportion of them claimed to possess noticed that temperatures were warming, whereas precipitation was declining. They react to those changes in climate by adopting varied climate-adaptive methods, outstanding among that area unit introduction of recent cashew varieties and intercropping of cashew aboard different crops. The study more disclosed that there was a big relationship between farmers expertise and adoption of a minimum of one adaptation strategy.
Conclusion: The survey results incontestable that cashew farmers within the study space were responsive to temperature change, and that they place in situ adaptation measures to assist them avert its negative consequences. 
 Adger, W.N., Arnell, N.W. and Tompkins, E.L., 2005. Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global environmental change, 15(2), pp.77-86. (Web Link)
 Adger, W.N., 2010. Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change. In Der klimawandel (pp. 327-345). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. (Web Link)
 Adger, W.N., Dessai, S., Goulden, M., Hulme, M., Lorenzoni, I., Nelson, D.R., Naess, L.O., Wolf, J. and Wreford, A., 2009. Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?. Climatic change, 93(3-4), pp.335-354. (Web Link)
 Adaptation pathways of global wheat production: Importance of strategic adaptation to climate change
Akemi Tanaka, Kiyoshi Takahashi, Yuji Masutomi, Naota Hanasaki, Yasuaki Hijioka, Hideo Shiogama & Yasuhiro Yamanaka
Scientific Reports volume 5, Article number: 14312 (2015) (Web Link)
 Esan, V. I., Lawi, M. B. and Okedigba, I. (2018) “Analysis of Cashew Farmers Adaptation to Climate Change in South-Western Nigeria”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 23(4), pp. 1-12. doi: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/39730. (Web Link)