The DSSAT cropping system model
The decision network for agrotechnology transfer (DSSAT) has been in use for the last fifteen years by researchers worldwide. This package incorporates models of sixteen totally different crops with code that facilitates the analysis and application of the crop models for various functions. Over the previous few years, it’s become progressively troublesome to keep up the DSSAT crop models, part thanks to proven fact that there have been totally different sets of coding system for various crops with very little attention to code style at the amount of crop models themselves. Thus, the DSSAT crop models are re-designed and programmed to facilitate additional economical incorporation of latest scientific advances, applications, documentation and maintenance. the idea for the new DSSAT cropping system model (CSM) style may be a standard structure during which parts separate on square measurea|subject field|field|field of study|study|bailiwick|branch of knowledge} lines and are structured to permit straightforward replacement or addition of modules. it’s one Soil module, a Crop guide module which might simulate totally different crops by shaping species input files, Associate in Nursing interface to feature individual crop models if they need a similar style and interface, a Weather module, and a module for coping with competition for lightweight and water among the soil, plants, and atmosphere. it’s additionally designed for incorporation into varied application packages, starting from people who facilitate researchers adapt and take a look at the CSM to people who operate the DSSAT–CSM to simulate production over time and house for various functions. during this paper, we tend to describe this new DSSAT–CSM style additionally as approaches wont to model the first scientific parts (soil, crop, weather, and management). additionally, the paper describes information needs and ways used for model analysis. we offer an summary of the many printed studies during which the DSSAT crop models are used for varied applications. the advantages of the new, re-designed DSSAT–CSM can give tidy opportunities to its developers et al within the scientific community for larger cooperation in knowledge domain analysis and within the application of data to resolve issues at field, farm, and better levels. 
Evaluating Cover Crops for Benefits, Costs and Performance within Cropping System Niches
The integration of canopy crops into cropping systems brings prices and edges, each internal and external to the farm. edges embrace promoting pest-suppression, soil and water quality, nutrient sport potency, and crop productivity. prices of adopting cowl crops embrace inflated direct costs, probably reduced financial gain if cowl crops interfere with different enticing crops, slow soil warming, difficulties in predicting N mineralization, and production expenses. crop edges tend to be higher in irrigated systems. The literature is reviewed here beside Michigan farmer expertise to guage promising crop species for four niches: Northern winter (USDA strength Zones 5–6), Northern summer (Zones 5–6), Southern winter (Zones 7–8), and Southern summer (Zones 7–8). heat season C4 grasses are outstanding performers for summer niches (6–9 Mg ha−1), and rye (Secale cereale L.) is that the most promising for winter niches (0.8–6 Mg ha−1) across all strength zones reviewed. Legume–cereal mixtures like sudangrass (Sorghum sudanese L.)–cowpea (Vigna eutherian L) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–red herb (Trifolium pretense L.) are the foremost effective suggests that to supply substantial amounts (28 Mg ha−1) of mixed quality residues. Legume covers are slow growers and dear to ascertain. At identical time, legumes fix N, manufacture prime quality however restricted amounts (0.5–4 Mg ha−1) of residues, and enhance useful insect environment. Brassica species manufacture glucosinolate-containing residues (2–6 Mg ha−1) and suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soil-borne unwellness. Legume crops are the foremost reliable suggests that to boost crop yields compared with fallows or different cowl crop species. However, farmer goals and circumstances should be thought of. If soil pests are a significant yield limiting consider crop production, then use of Brassica cowl crops ought to be thought of. Cereal cowl crops manufacture the biggest quantity of biomass and may be thought of once the goal is to apace build soil organic matter. Legume–cereal or brassica–cereal mixtures show promise over a large vary of niches. 
Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health
Balancing productivity, profit, and environmental health may be a key challenge for agricultural property. Most crop production systems within the u. s. area unit characterised by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and huge negative impacts on the atmosphere. we have a tendency to hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote scheme services that will supplement, and eventually displace, artificial external inputs wont to maintain crop productivity. to check this, we have a tendency to conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that enclosed 3 different systems varied long of crop sequence and inputs. we have a tendency to compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilisers and weed killers at rates adore those used on close farms with 2 a lot of various cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower artificial N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of Bos taurus manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested product, and profit within the a lot of various systems were just like, or bigger than, those within the standard system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively all told systems, however fresh toxicity of the a lot of various systems was 2 orders of magnitude under within the standard system. Results of our study indicate that a lot of various cropping systems will use tiny amounts of artificial agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with that to tune, instead of drive, agroecosystem performance, whereas meeting or exceptional the performance of less various systems. 
The influence of a year-round tillage and residue management model on soil N fractions in a wheat-maize cropping system in central China
Tillage follow and residue management play vital roles in N pool in soils. This study determined the impacts of tillage follow and residue management on crop yield. It conjointly investigated the distribution, fractionation, and stratification of N at soil at depths starting from zero to 60 cm below wheat–maize cropping systems. 3 treatments were established in 2009: no-tillage with straw removal for winter wheat and summer maize (NT), no-tillage with straw mulching for winter wheat and summer maize (NTS), no-tillage with straw mulching for summer maize and plow tillage with straw incorporation for winter wheat (NPTS). when eight years, soil total element (TN) content in National TrustS was bigger than in NT, however solely in 0–10 cm layer. NPTS treatment hyperbolic American state content over National Trust and NTS in 10–20 cm layer by eighteen.0% and 13.9%, and by 16.8% and 18.1% in 20–30 cm layer, severally. Particulate organic N, microorganism biomass N and water-extractable organic N levels were the best in 0–10 cm layer below NTS treatment; and in 10–30 cm layer, the corresponding values were the best below NPTS treatment. NPTS treatment might immobilize the mineral N in 10–30 cm layer, and reduced natural action losses into deeper soil layers (40–60 cm). what is more, total yield hyperbolic by fourteen.7% and 8.5% in NPTS treatment compared to National Trust and NTS treatments, severally. These results indicate that NPTS is a good and property management follow, which is able to improve soil fertility, property crop production, and environmental quality in low-productivity soils in central China. 
Impact of Crop Residue Management on Soil Properties and Crop Yield, in Irrigated Corn-Wheat Cropping System
Aims: the most aim of this study was to work out the consequences of residue management strategies on the soil properties and crop yield in corn-wheat cropping system throughout four years analysis, and to introduce a correct residue management methodology for corn-wheat rotation in Fars province, Iran.
Study Design: The analysis was conducted within the kind of a split-plot experimental style with 3 replications. Main-plots were wheat residue management with four levels, and corn residue with 2 levels was thought-about as subplots.
Place and period of Study: This study was conducted in Darab analysis Station of Fars province, Persia from Gregorian calendar month 2005 to Gregorian calendar month 2009.
Methodology: This analysis was conducted within the kind of a split plot experiment with the bottom of randomised complete block style (RCBD) with 3 replications in Darab analysis Station of Fars province, Iran. Main-plots were wheat residue management strategies as well as 1) shredding the residue mistreatment device and cultivation the soil with mouldboard plough (25 cm) and harrow; 2) shredding the residue mistreatment device and cultivation the soil with chisel plow and rotivator; 3) holding the crop residue on the soil surface with none tillage operation (no-till); and 4) burning the residue and cultivation the soil with mouldboard plough (25 cm) and disk harrow. Corn residue management strategies as well as 1) stalk shredding mistreatment stalk device, burial the shredded stalk mistreatment mouldboard plough (25 cm), and applying disk harrow; 2) burning residue (conventional method) were thought-about as sub-plots. Parameters consisting of bulk density, soil cone index, soil organic carbon, proportion of seed emergence, and crop yield were measured. Collected knowledge were analyzed mistreatment SAS applied math package and Duncan’s multiple vary tests was wont to compare the treatments suggests that.
Results: Results indicated that shredding the residue by device and incorporation with soil shriveled the soil bulk density and soil cone index. There was a big distinction between the burial crop residue and holding the residue on the soil surface from the read purpose of soil bulk density and soil cone index. the share of seeds emerged, emergence rate index, and yield in shredding the residue by device together with applying chisel plow and rotivator had the very best quantity attributable to the uniformity of residue distribution. once four years adding corn and wheat residue into the soil, the soil organic carbon inflated for thirteen and 100% within the residue management treatments and burning residue methodology, severally.
Conclusion: the subsequent conclusions might be drawn from the results of this study:
Adding chopped crop (corn and wheat) residue to the soil inflated the soil organic carbon.
Soil bulk density and cone index (soil compaction) shriveled by incorporating the shredded crop residue to the soil.
Adding shredded corn and wheat residue to the soil improved corn and wheat seed emergence and yield. 
 Jones, J.W., Hoogenboom, G., Porter, C.H., Boote, K.J., Batchelor, W.D., Hunt, L.A., Wilkens, P.W., Singh, U., Gijsman, A.J. and Ritchie, J.T., 2003. The DSSAT cropping system model. European journal of agronomy, 18(3-4), pp.235-265. (Web Link)
 Snapp, S.S., Swinton, S.M., Labarta, R., Mutch, D., Black, J.R., Leep, R., Nyiraneza, J. and O’neil, K., 2005. Evaluating cover crops for benefits, costs and performance within cropping system niches. Agronomy journal, 97(1), pp.322-332. (Web Link)
 Davis, A.S., Hill, J.D., Chase, C.A., Johanns, A.M. and Liebman, M., 2012. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health. PloS one, 7(10), p.e47149. (Web Link)
 The influence of a year-round tillage and residue management model on soil N fractions in a wheat-maize cropping system in central China
Xinxin Ye, Yin Ye, Rushan Chai, Junli Li, Chao Ma, Hongying Li, Qizhong Xiong & Hongjian Gao
Scientific Reportsvolume 9, Article number: 4767 (2019) (Web Link)
 Ali Behaeen, M. and Afzalinia, S. (2018) “Impact of Crop Residue Management on Soil Properties and Crop Yield, in Irrigated Corn-Wheat Cropping System”, International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 23(1), pp. 1-9. doi: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/41798. (Web Link)