Latest Research on Microflora: Dec – 2019

The indigenous gastrointestinal microflora

The indigenous gastrointestinal (GI) tract microflora has profound effects on the anatomical, physiological and immunological development of the host. The indigenous microflora stimulates the host system to reply more quickly to pathogen challenge and, through bacterial antagonism, inhibits colonization of the alimentary canal by overt exogenous pathogens. Indigenous GI bacteria also are opportunistic pathogens and may translocate across the mucosal barrier to cause systemic infection in debilitated hosts. [1]

Subgingival microflora and periodontal disease

This article describes the subgingival microflora of the healthy periodontium, gingivitis, advanced adult periodontitis, and juvenile periodontitis. a complete of seven to nine subjects were examined in each of the four periodontal clinical entities listed. The individual bacteriological samples included material from the bottom of one periodontal pocket. The sampling, the treatment of the samples, and therefore the bacteriological cultivations were administered using continuous anaerobic techniques. [2]

The human intestinal microflora

The major host defense mechanisms against bacterial overowth within the small bowel are the traditional propulsive activity of the bowel itself and gastric acid secretion. Microbial interactions are a serious think about regulating the indigenous bacterial flora. Studies of the bacterial enzymes of the gut suggest that changes in diet may cause marked changes within the colonic flora. Antibiotics affect the composition of the colonic microflora. The microflora also influence the degradation of mucin, the conversion of urobilin to urobilinogen, of cholesterol to coprostanol, and therefore the production of short chain fatty acids. [3]

Colonization of Gnotobiotic Mice with Human Gut Microflora at Birth Protects Against Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Mediated Abrogation of Oral Tolerance

Previous work has shown that the indigenous gut microflora in mice plays a protective role against Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-mediated abrogation of oral tolerance to an unrelated co-ingested protein. To assess potential protection by human gut microflora, we studied the effect of human gut microflora during a murine model. Oral tolerance was studied in adult gnotobiotic mice (i.e. ex-germ-free mice) colonized with the whole human fecal microflora and orally administered once with LT and ovalbumin. Systemic suppression of IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE antibody responses was assessed by ELISA. Both specific IgG subclasses and IgE hyporesponsiveness was induced in LT + ovalbumin–fed gnotobiotic mice, indicating that the human gut microflora can protect against the LT-mediated abrogation of oral tolerance. [4]

Performance, Carcass Yield and Gut Microflora of Broiler Chickens Offered with Viola odorata Leaf Extract in Drinking Water

The cross resistance of antibiotics from birds to human advocated using of herb extract.120 day old broiler chickens of Arbor Acres strain were used for the study. Birds were randomly allotted into four experimental treatments with three replicate of ten birds per replicate. T1 control without antibiotics, T2 with antibiotics (Amoxycol® wsp containing Amoxycillin 200 mg + collistin sulphate 1,000,000iu) at 1 g/litre of beverage, T3 contain 10% sweet violet extracts offered at 1 ml extract/1 litre of beverage, while T4 contain 20% sweet violet extracts offered at 1 ml extract/1 litre of beverage. The birds were exposed to an equivalent environment, feeds and water got ad lib and other routine management practices were administered. Significant differences (P>0.05) existed within the daily feed intake, total feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Birds on 20% extracts recorded the very best feed intake while birds on T3 10% extract consumed the smallest amount. [5]

Reference

[1] Berg, R.D., 1996. The indigenous gastrointestinal microflora. Trends in microbiology, 4(11), (Web Link)

[2] Slots, J., 1979. Subgingival microflora and periodontal disease. Journal of clinical periodontology, 6(5), (Web Link)

[3] Simon, G.L. and Gorbach, S.L., 1986. The human intestinal microflora. Digestive diseases and sciences, 31(9), (Web Link)

[4] Colonization of Gnotobiotic Mice with Human Gut Microflora at Birth Protects Against Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Mediated Abrogation of Oral Tolerance
Valérie Gaboriau-Routhiau, Pierre Raibaud, Catherine Dubuquoy & Marie-Christiane Moreau
Pediatric Research volume 54, (Web Link)

[5] Olayemi, W. A., Akapo, O. A., Olorunsola, R. A., Oso, A. O., Bamgbose, A. M. and Mafimidiwo, A. O. (2017) “Performance, Carcass Yield and Gut Microflora of Broiler Chickens Offered with Viola odorata Leaf Extract in Drinking Water”, Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 13(3), (Web Link)

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