Latest Research News on Acute Leukemia: Jan – 2020

Classification of Acute Leukemia

The classification of leukemia has almost invariably been supported the morphologic diagnosis into two broad categories: acute lymphocytic and acute chronic myelocytic leukemia . Despite the wide selection of morphologic variation in both groups, strict criteria to define the subgroups have only recently been proposed. the traditional markers for B and T cells are now being applied to leukemic cells as are cytochemistry and microscopy , terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, serum lysozyme, and surface markers, E-rosettes, membrane immunoglobulin, antinull acute leukemia antiserum, and Fc and C3 receptors. The myelodysplastic syndromes may mimic leukemia and it’s important that they be identified and treated appropriately. [1]

Fungal infections complicating acute leukemia

A total of 189 fungal infections were observed in 161 patients with leukemia between January 1954 and June 1964. There has been a big increase within the incidence of fungal infections during the last 512 Years of the study. Most of those infections were caused by Candida spp. Mucormycosis, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis and T. glabrata infections weren’t observed before 1959. The mycosis caused the deaths of 61 per cent of those patients. Most of the fungal infections weren’t diagnosed antemortem. Chest X-rays were frequently normal in patients with fungus infection of the lung. All eight patients who recovered achieved remission of their leukemia. [2]

11q23 rearrangements in acute leukemia.

The MLL gene, located at chromosome 11, band q23, is usually disrupted by a spread of chromosomal rearrangements that occur during a cute lymphoblastic leukemias and in a subset of de novo and secondary acute myeloid leukemias. In both scenarios, MLL rearrangements are related to distinct clinical features and a poor prognosis. MLL encodes an outsized protein (MLL) that shares homology with the Drosophila trithorax protein. 11q23 translocations end in the generation of a series of acute leukemia-specific chimeric proteins that contain the N-terminus of MLL and are thought to be crucial to leukemogenesis. during this article, we review the structural features of the MLL fusion proteins also because the clinical features and molecular diagnosis of acute leukemias containing MLL arrangements. [3]

Standardized RT-PCR analysis of fusion gene transcripts from chromosome aberrations in acute leukemia for detection of minimal residual disease

Prospective studies on the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in leukemia patients have shown that large-scale MRD studies are feasible which clinically relevant MRD-based risk group classification are often achieved and may now be used for designing new treatment protocols. However, multicenter international treatment protocols with MRD-based stratification of treatment need careful standardization and internal control of the MRD techniques. This was the aim of the ecu BIOMED-1 Concerted Action ‘Investigation of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia: international standardization and clinical evaluation’ with participants of 14 laboratories in eight European countries (ES, NL, PT, IT, DE, FR, SE and AT). [4]

Evaluation of Blood Banked Fibrin Glue versus Blood Banked Platelet Glue as a Local Hemosatic Agent and a Healing Promoter in Patients with Acute Leukemia Undergoing Tooth Extraction

Aims: the aim of this study was to match the effectiveness of blood banked platelet glue and blood banked fibrin glue as an area hemostatic agent after tooth extraction in patients diagnosed with leukemia with concomitant thrombocytopenia.

Study Design: Randomized clinical test.

Place and Duration of Study: Hematology Unit, general medicine Department, Faculty of drugs , Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt between June 2015 and July 2016. [5]

Reference

[1] Gralnick, H.R., Galton, D.A.G., CATOVSKY, D., SULTAN, C. and BENNETT, J.M., 1977. Classification of acute leukemia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 87(6), (Web Link)

[2] Bodey, G.P., 1966. Fungal infections complicating acute leukemia. Journal of chronic diseases, 19(6), (Web Link)

[3] Rubnitz, J.E., Behm, F.G. and Downing, J.R., 1996. 11q23 rearrangements in acute leukemia. Leukemia, 10(1), (Web Link)

[4] Standardized RT-PCR analysis of fusion gene transcripts from chromosome aberrations in acute leukemia for detection of minimal residual disease
Report of the BIOMED-1 Concerted Action: Investigation of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia
JJM van Dongen, EA Macintyre, JA Gabert, E Delabesse, V Rossi, G Saglio, E Gottardi, A Rambaldi, G Dotti, F Griesinger, A Parreira, P Gameiro, M González Diáz, M Malec, AW Langerak, JF San Miguel & A Biondi
Leukemia volume 13, (Web Link)

[5] Salem, S. and Saad, I. (2017) “Evaluation of Blood Banked Fibrin Glue versus Blood Banked Platelet Glue as a Local Hemosatic Agent and a Healing Promoter in Patients with Acute Leukemia Undergoing Tooth Extraction”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 21(7), (Web Link)

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