Latest News on Melanoma Research: Jan – 2020

Influence of sun exposures during childhood and during adulthood on melanoma risk

Sun exposure in both childhood and adult life represents the most environmental risk determinant for cutaneous melanoma. However, little is understood about the joint effects of sun exposure during early and later life on melanoma risk. A case‐control study in Belgium, Germany and France conducted in 1991–1992 suggests that the melanoma risks attached to indicators associated with sun exposure appear to mix their effects in an additive way. We therefore constructed composite indices of sun exposure during childhood and through adulthood, assuming additive combinations of melanoma risk related to each indicator of sun exposure. Logistic regression modeling showed that the melanoma risk related to a given level of sun exposure during adulthood increased with higher sun exposure during childhood, but the rise in risk was above the straightforward addition of melanoma risk related to sun exposure during childhood or adulthood. [1]

Predicting Survival Outcome of Localized Melanoma: An Electronic Prediction Tool Based on the AJCC Melanoma Database

Background: We sought to develop a reliable and reproducible statistical model to predict the survival outcome of patients with localized melanoma.

Methods: a complete of 25,734 patients with localized melanoma from the 2008 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Melanoma Database were used for the model development and validation. The predictive model was developed from the model development data set (n = 14,760) contributed by nine major institutions and study groups and was validated on an independent model validation data set (n = 10,974) consisting of patients from a separate melanoma center. Multivariate analyses supported the Cox model were performed for the model development, and therefore the concordance correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the adequacy of the predictive model. [2]

Cutaneous melanoma.

Between the first 1960s and therefore the late 1980s, the incidence of melanoma increased at a rate of 3-7% per annum in populations of mainly European origin. Corresponding trends were observed in mortality. Higher rates of increase in incidence were observed during a few populations (eg 8.9% per annum in Hawaii whites). With the exception of Japan and possibly Puerto Rico, incidence rates of melanoma have remained stable within the few populations of mainly non-European origin that reliable incidence data were available. A comparison aged specific trends in incidence and mortality in populations of mainly European origin showed two general patterns: endless increase in incidence altogether age groups but moderately or cessation of the previous rising trend in mortality in younger people in additional recent time periods (eg Canada, continental USA, Denmark and therefore the UK) and up to date moderation or cessation of both incidence and mortality trends in younger people (eg New Zealand and, possibly, Hawaii whites). [3]

Melanoblast transcriptome analysis reveals pathways promoting melanoma metastasis

Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive cancer of melanocytes with a robust propensity to metastasize. We posit that melanoma cells acquire metastatic capability by adopting an embryonic-like phenotype, which a lineage approach would uncover metastatic melanoma biology. employing a genetically engineered mouse model to get an upscale melanoblast transcriptome dataset, we identify melanoblast-specific genes whose expression contribute to metastatic competence and derive a 43-gene signature that predicts patient survival. We identify a melanoblast gene, KDELR3, whose loss impairs experimental metastasis. In contrast, KDELR1 deficiency enhances metastasis, providing the primary example of various disease etiologies within the KDELR-family of retrograde transporters. [4]

Mucosal Melanoma of the Sino-nasal Tract – A Rare Case Report

Sino nasal melanoma may be a very aggressive and rare neoplasm of the top and neck region. but 2% of all mucosal melanomas originate from the sino-nasal region demanding a high index of suspicion to diagnose these tumours. The patients developing sino-nasal melanomas are usually in their sixties and seventies. These patients often present in a complicated stage thanks to its nature of rapid progression related to non-specific symptoms. this case report highlights a rare case of melanoma of the sinus , involving orbit during a 56 years old male patient. [5]

Reference

[1] Autier, P. and Doré for Epimel and Eortc Melanoma Cooperative Group, J.F., 1998. Influence of sun exposures during childhood and during adulthood on melanoma risk. International journal of cancer, 77(4), (Web Link)

[2] Soong, S.J., Ding, S., Coit, D., Balch, C.M., Gershenwald, J.E., Thompson, J.F., Gimotty, P. and Force, A.M.T., 2010. Predicting survival outcome of localized melanoma: an electronic prediction tool based on the AJCC Melanoma Database. Annals of surgical oncology, 17(8), (Web Link)

[3] Armstrong, B.K. and Kricker, A., 1994. Cutaneous melanoma. Cancer surveys, 19, (Web Link)

[4] Melanoblast transcriptome analysis reveals pathways promoting melanoma metastasis
Kerrie L. Marie, Antonella Sassano, Howard H. Yang, Aleksandra M. Michalowski, Helen T. Michael, Theresa Guo, Yien Che Tsai, Allan M. Weissman, Maxwell P. Lee, Lisa M. Jenkins, M. Raza Zaidi, Eva Pérez-Guijarro, Chi-Ping Day, Kris Ylaya, Stephen M. Hewitt, Nimit L. Patel, Heinz Arnheiter, Sean Davis, Paul S. Meltzer, Glenn Merlino & Pravin J. Mishra
Nature Communications volume 11, (Web Link)

[5] Trivedi, V., Naseera, S., Ghosh, M., Chauhan, R., Muneer, A. and Mandal, K. (2017) “Mucosal Melanoma of the Sino-nasal Tract – A Rare Case Report”, Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 5(2), (Web Link)

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