News Update on Poultry Production Research: Feb – 2020

Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production

The intestinal microbiota, epithelium, and system provide resistance to enteric pathogens. Recent data suggest that resistance isn’t solely thanks to the sum of the components, but that cross-talk between these components is additionally involved in modulating this resistance. Inhibition of pathogens by the intestinal microbiota has been called bacterial antagonism, bacterial interference, barrier effect, colonization resistance, and competitive exclusion. Mechanisms by which the indigenous intestinal bacteria inhibit pathogens include competition for colonization sites, competition for nutrients, production of toxic compounds, or stimulation of the system . These mechanisms aren’t mutually exclusive, and inhibition may comprise one, several, or all of those mechanisms. Consumption of fermented foods has been related to improved health, and carboxylic acid bacteria (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) are implicated because the causative agents for this improved health. Research over the last century has shown that carboxylic acid bacteria and certain other microorganisms can increase resistance to disease which carboxylic acid bacteria are often enriched within the intestinal tract by feeding specific carbohydrates. [1]

Poultry production in warm wet climates.

This book describes theoretical and practical aspects of poultry production with regard to hot, humid climates. The authors, who are engaged within the teaching and management of poultry production in Nigeria, intend that the book should be of use to school students and extension workers within the humid tropics. The text is split into 13 chapters which describe aspects of breeding, management, housing, nutrition, diseases, marketing and therefore the economics of poultry production. Each chapter concludes with an inventory of references for further reading, and variety of tables, diagrams and illustrations are included throughout the book. Although the bulk of the poultry within the humid tropics are kept under extensive management systems, the authors believe that intensive, total confinement production systems should be adopted to supply poultry products efficiently in these areas. Much of the topic matter covered within the book is thus almost like that described by more detailed and authoritative standard texts of poultry production. The book only discusses the management of broiler chickens and laying hens although the authors believe that ducks could also be a valuable species and mention that guinea are important in some areas. [2]

Impact of Heat Stress on Poultry Production

Understanding and controlling environmental conditions is crucial to successful poultry production and welfare. Heat stress is one among the foremost important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effects of warmth stress on broilers and laying hens range from reduced growth and egg production to decreased poultry and egg quality and safety. Moreover, the negative impact of warmth stress on poultry welfare has recently attracted increasing public awareness and concern. Much information has been published on the consequences of warmth stress on productivity and immune reaction in poultry. However, our knowledge of basic mechanisms associated to the reported effects, also as associated with poultry behavior and welfare under heat stress conditions is actually scarce. Intervention strategies to affect heat stress conditions are the main target of the many published studies. Nevertheless, effectiveness of most of the interventions has been variable or inconsistent. [3]

Economic factors influencing zoonotic disease dynamics: demand for poultry meat and seasonal transmission of avian influenza in Vietnam

While climate is usually presented as a key factor influencing the seasonality of diseases, the importance of anthropogenic factors is a smaller amount commonly evaluated. employing a combination of methods – wavelet analysis, economic analysis, statistical and disease transmission modelling – we aimed to explore the influence of climatic and economic factors on the seasonality of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza within the domestic poultry population of Vietnam. We found that while climatic variables are related to seasonal variation within the incidence of avian influenza outbreaks within the North of the country, this is often not the case within the Centre and therefore the South. In contrast, temporal patterns of H5N1 incidence are similar across these 3 regions: periods of high H5N1 incidence coincide with Lunar New Year festival, occurring in January-February, within the 3 climatic regions for five out of the 8 study years. [4]

Rural Youth Involvement in Poultry Production in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

The study was conducted to look at the involvement of youth in poultry production in Ido government Area of Oyo State. a complete of 1 hundred and twenty five respondents were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected with the utilization of questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics like frequency count percentages and mean. Test of hypothesis was done using chi square. Findings show that quite half (59.2%) of the respondents were male, married (52.8%) while but half (46.4%) had lyceum education with a mean of 6 years farming experience. Most of the respondents (64%) were involved in poultry production specifically broiler production (86.4%). There was considerable high level of involvement in poultry production (64.0%). Years of farming experience (χ2 = 8.12, p ≤ 0.05) was found to be significantly related with rural youth involvement in poultry production. The study therefore recommends that more youth should be encouraged in poultry production in other to enhance their socio-economic status also as enhancing animal protein sufficiency. [5]

Reference

[1] Patterson, J.A. and Burkholder, K.M., 2003. Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Poultry science, 82(4), (Web Link)

[2] Oluyemi, J.A. and Roberts, F.A., 1979. Poultry production in warm wet climates. Macmillan Press Ltd.. (Web Link)

[3] Lara, L.J. and Rostagno, M.H., 2013. Impact of heat stress on poultry production. Animals, 3(2), (Web Link)

[4] Economic factors influencing zoonotic disease dynamics: demand for poultry meat and seasonal transmission of avian influenza in Vietnam
Alexis Delabouglise, Marc Choisy, Thang D. Phan, Nicolas Antoine-Moussiaux, Marisa Peyre, Ton D. Vu, Dirk U. Pfeiffer & Guillaume Fournié
Scientific Reports volume 7, (Web Link)

[5] A. Adeniran, A., M. Akinnagbe, O., E. Obute, J. and D. Olatunji, T. (2018) “Rural Youth Involvement in Poultry Production in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria”, Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, 9(2), (Web Link)

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