News Update on Fish Consumption : Nov 2020

The Inverse Relation between Fish Consumption and 20-Year Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease

The low death rate from coronary heart disease among the Greenland Eskimos has been ascribed to their high fish consumption. We therefore decided to investigate the relation between fish consumption and coronary heart disease in a group of men in the town of Zutphen, the Netherlands. Information about the fish consumption of 852 middle-aged men without coronary heart disease was collected in 1960 by a careful dietary history obtained from the participants and their wives. During 20 years of follow-up 78 men died from coronary heart disease. An inverse dose–response relation was observed between fish consumption in 1960 and death from coronary heart disease during 20 years of follow-up. This relation persisted after multiple logistic-regression analyses. Mortality from coronary heart disease was more than 50 per cent lower among those who consumed at least 30 g of fish per day than among those who did not eat fish.
We conclude that the consumption of as little as one or two fish dishes per week may be of preventive value in relation to coronary heart disease. [1]

Fatty fish consumption and risk of prostate cancer

Consumption of fatty fish might reduce the risk of prostate cancer, although epidemiological studies of fish consumption are rare. We studied the association between fish consumption and prostate cancer in a population-based prospective cohort of 6272 Swedish men. During 30 years of follow-up, men who ate no fish had a two-fold to three-fold higher frequency of prostate cancer than those who ate moderate or high amounts did. Our results suggest that fish consumption could be associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer. [2]

Fish Consumption and Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease

To the Editor: The observation by Kromhout et al. (May 9 issue)1 that consumption of fish was inversely associated with the risk of coronary death among men in Zutphen, the Netherlands, prompted us to investigate this question in the Western Electric Study. As described previously,2 the lipid composition of the diet was associated with the serum cholesterol concentration and the risk of coronary death in this cohort of middle-aged men employed by the Western Electric Company in Chicago during 1957. The new results, shown in Table 1, support the observation by Kromhout et al. Consumption of fish at entry was. [3]

Quantitative Analysis of Fish Consumption in Rivers State, Nigeria

The determinants of demand for fish in Rivers State were isolated in this study. Structured questionnaire was used in eliciting information from the respondents. Cross sectional data were randomly collected from 210 respondents from the three senatorial zones. Multiple regression analysis was used in analyzing the data. Results showed that age, household size, income, price of beef and sex of the consumers were the major determinants of fish consumption in the State. The demand for fish was relatively income inelastic. Beef was a close substitute to fish therefore an increase in the price of beef leads to a corresponding increase in the quantity of fish demanded. Fish was a normal good. Policies and programmes aimed at raising the income of households such as credit liberalization should be implemented by the government. In addition the level of education of the citizens should be raised through compulsory secondary education so as to increase the level of their nutritional enlightenment which is expected to boost their levels of protein intake. [4]

Human Dietary Intake of Metals through Fish Consumption in Bayelsa, Nigeria: Swali Market-River Nun, Case Study

Thirty-three samples belonging to five fish families were investigated for metal load with a view to determining the health implications on infants, children and adults in Yenegoa where the fish samples were collected. The metal analysis was done using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF); dietary intake and health impact were calculated for metals using the Estimated Dietary Intake (EDI) and Hazard Index (HI) respectively. The study revealed that the family Cichlidae had the highest metal load (513.20 mg/kg) followed by Synodontidae (303.97 mg/kg), Mormyridae (278.99 mg/kg), Mugilidae (278.33 mg/kg) and Cyprinidae (229.43 mg/kg). The difference between the metal load for each family was statistically significant at P<0.05. For metal species, the order from the highest to the lowest was Fe>Zn>Cr>Ni>Mn>Cu>Ba>V>Pb>Cd>As>Hg corresponding to mean values of 137.79, 60.59, 25.03, 18.86, 18.25, 18.12, 10.31, 8.71, 2.29, 2.12, 0.55, 0.15 mg/kg respectively. The EDI showed that seven (7) metals for adults and six (6) metals for children out of the twelve (12) metals in the study were above the limit set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and FAO/WHO. The HI revealed that eight (8) out of the twelve (12) metals studied were >1for both children and adults while infants had just three (3) metals >1. This calls for serious concern for consumers of fish in Yenegoa and may also be indicative of some high level of water and sediment pollution in the surrounding waters. [5]

  Reference

[1] Kromhout, D., Bosschieter, E.B. and Coulander, C.D.L., 1985. The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. New England journal of medicine, 312(19), pp.1205-1209.

[2] Terry, P., Lichtenstein, P., Feychting, M., Ahlbom, A. and Wolk, A., 2001. Fatty fish consumption and risk of prostate cancer. The Lancet, 357(9270), pp.1764-1766.

[3] Shekelle, R.B., Missell, L., Paul, O., Shryock, A.M., Stamler, J., Vollset, S.E., Heuch, I., Bjelke, E., Curb, J.D., Reed, D.M. and Greaves, M., 1985. Fish consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 313(13), pp.820-824.

[4] O. Anyanwu, S. (2014) “Quantitative Analysis of Fish Consumption in Rivers State, Nigeria”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 4(4), pp. 469-475. doi: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6428.

[5] Uche, A. O., Sikoki, F. D., Konya, R. S., Babatunde, B. B. and Ifeh, M. O. (2017) “Human Dietary Intake of Metals through Fish Consumption in Bayelsa, Nigeria: Swali Market-River Nun, Case Study”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 12(1), pp. 1-9. doi: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31494.

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