In wind flows, natural and anthropogenic particles can travel long distances, but negative electrical charge can increase dispersion due to friction. As can be seen by disasters such as Chernobyl in Russia with around 6000 kilometres or the Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster in Fukushima, Japan, which covers almost the entire Northern Hemisphere or more than 20,000 kilometres of flying particles, particles could move long distances. The theoretical method never calculates models for the measurement of distance transport of biological particulate matter with and without charge. Nor do we know that we are able to measure real distances If we take into account the charges on particles. Friction is encountered by objects that move through the air. Friction can be characterised in two ways; either with its viscous forces in a smooth constant way through the air, or in turbulent chaotic eddies and vortices and other flow instabilities. It may be defined as a lower Reynolds number than one in the case of only viscous forces, while In all other environments, numbers greater than or equal to one must always be represented by Reynolds. This article describes the measured effects on particles, either as a low Reynolds number and thus as a Navier-Stokes equation or Stokes’ Law, or as an equivalent or higher Reynolds number according to Newton’s Third Law in the case of non-laminar and complex powers. In addition, with evidence of long distance dispersion of natural particulate matter, some striking examples of particle travel are given.
Author (s) Details
Bob W. N. J. Ursem
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Botanic Garden Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
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