News Update on Phytoseiidae: Feb 2021

A review of the subfamilies Phytoseiinae and Typhlodrominae (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

The family Phytoseiidae Berlese is considered to be comprised of 3 subfamilies: Amblyseiinae Muma, Phytoseiinae Berlese and Typhlodrominae New status. The taxa comprising the subfamilies Phytoseiinae, with 142 known species, and Typhlodrominae, with 452 known species, are reviewed to the level of species groups. There are 3 genera and 5 species groups in the Phytoseiinae and 6 tribes, 20 genera, 8 subgenera and 28 species groups in the Typhlodrominae. Four new tribes, 5 new genera, one new subgenus and 13 new species groups are proposed. The exemplar species of each of the taxa are illustrated. [1]

Revision of the lifestyles of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and implications for biological control strategies

A new classification of lifestyles of phytoseiid mites is proposed based on the findings and suggestions from many studies conducted in the fifteen years since the publication of the lifestyle system by McMurtry & Croft (1997). In this newly proposed classification, Type I (Specialized mite predators) is divided into three subtypes to highlight mite prey specificity: subtype I-a—Specialized predators of Tetranychus species (Tetranychidae); subtype I-b—Specialized predators of web-nest producing mites (Tetranychidae); subtype I-c—Specialized predators of tydeoids (Tydeoidea). Type II (Selective predators of tetranychid mites) remains essentially the same. Type III (Generalist predators) is a huge and diverse group of general feeders; predators in this category are now grouped into five subtypes based on the microhabitat occupied and morphology: subtype III-a—Generalist predators living on pubescent leaves; subtype III-b—Generalist predators living on glabrous leaves; III-c—Generalist predators living in confined spaces on dicotyledonous plants; III-d—Generalist predators living in confined spaces on monocotyledonous plants; III-e—Generalist predators from soil/litter habitats. Type IV (Pollen feeding generalist predators) also remains essentially the same. Two possible additional lifestyles include phytoseiids living on aquatic plants and phytoseiids able to pierce leaf cells. Behavioral and biological information is updated and implications for biological control strategies are discussed. [2]

Phytoseiidae (Acarina) Associated with Citrus in Florida

Investigations by Citrus Experiment Station workers at Lake Alfred concerned with the factors affecting biological control of citrus insects and mites in Florida have recently been intensified. Before an analysis of biological control can be made it is necessary that as many as possible of the factors be recognized and identified. Taxonomic studies have, therefore, received primary attention. Fisher (1947, 1950 and 1951) has reported on several diseases of citrus insects and mites and is continuing the search. A survey of parasites and predators was initiated in October, 1951. This paper is the first of a planned series listing and describing the predators and parasites of citrus insects and mites in Florida. [3]

Response of Some Cassava Varieties to Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar. (Tetrachynidae: Acarina) Infestation in the Lake Zone, Tanzania

The study was aimed to determine the responses of 9 commercial and local cassava varieties to M. tanajoa and the environment in two different seasons (2014/2015, wet and dry) in the lake Zone. This was laid out in a Split plot design with varieties as sub plots and locations as main plots. Three field trials were conducted at three different locations, Ukiruguru (Latitude 020 43.156’ S, Longitude 0330 01.431’ E and elevation of 4000 m above sea level) N’gombe (Latitude 020 45.743’ S, Longitude 0330 01.838’ E and elevation 3888 m above sea level) and Kishiri (Latitude 020 48.694’ S, Longitude 0330 22.161’ E and elevation 4023 m above sea level) villages of Kwimba and Misungwi districts of Mwanza, respectively. These were replicated three times making a total of twenty seven plots. The treatments were allocated to a plot size of 36 m2 with 1 m path (boarder) between plots and 2 m between blocks. One stem cutting (30 cm long) was planted at a spacing of 1×1 m within and between rows giving a total of 10,000 plant population ha-1. This was allowed under natural infestation by the mites. The results indicated that the mites population and damage generally varied significantly (P= 0.05) among varieties, sampling dates and locations. In general, Kwimba recorded the highest population number of M. tanajoa while Ukiruguru had the highest root yield and number. The study shows that Kyaka appeared to be tolerant/resistant to cassava green mite while Liongo Kwimba, Naliendele, Suma and Namikonga were found to be most susceptible, respectively. Therefore, cassava varietal resistance has a significant effect on the population dynamics and damage of M. tanajoa in the Lake Zone, Tanzania. [4]

Adult idiosomal setal patterns in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Gamasina)

Forty-one pairs of setae and a single post-anal seta are known to occur on the idiosoma of adult Phytoseiidae. Twenty-one pairs and the post-anal seta are present on all known species in the family. Variations in the occurrence of the remaining 20 pairs produce different idiosomal setal patterns: 85 patterns for the adult females and 71 for the adult males. Comparisons of the setal patterns between different body areas show that there has been extensive homoplasy in the evolution of idiosomal setal patterns. Idiosomal chaetotaxy of the Phytoseiidae is compared to that of the Ascinae and the Otopheidomenidae. [5]

Reference

[1] Chant, D.A. and McMurtry, J.A., 1994. A review of the subfamilies Phytoseiinae and Typhlodrominae (Acari: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology, 20(4), pp.223-310.

[2] McMurtry, J.A., De Moraes, G.J. and Sourassou, N.F., 2013. Revision of the lifestyles of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and implications for biological control strategies. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 18(4), pp.297-320.

[3] Muma, M.H., 1955. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) associated with citrus in Florida. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 48(4), pp.262-272.

[4] Wudil, B. S., Rwegasira, G. M., Kudra, A. B. and Jeremiah, S. K. (2016) “Response of Some Cassava Varieties to Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar. (Tetrachynidae: Acarina) Infestation in the Lake Zone, Tanzania”, Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 7(4), pp. 1-9. doi: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/25213.

[5] Chant, D.A. and Yoshida-Shaul, E., 1992. Adult idiosomal setal patterns in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Gamasina). International Journal of Acarology, 18(3), pp.177-193.

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