A Critical Study on the Duality of Functional Knee Axes and Foot Contact

To correctly insert a prosthesis and access joint kinematics, it is important to measure the functional knee axis (FKA). Proper estimation of the patient-specific joint axis of the knee is important for achieving a reliable evaluation of musculoskeletal kinematics and dynamics Researchers reported on the KFA primarily with regard to the manual control of flexion-extension movements carried out passively without any voluntary intervention. Active touch and motion refer to what is generally referred to as touching. Changes in skin stimulation caused by surfaces are altered by variations in motor activity. This fact is worth remembering because the locomotion and its locomotion is often overlooked. To correctly insert a prosthesis and access joint kinematics, estimating the functional knee axis (FKA) is essential. Proper estimation of the patient-specific joint axis of the knee is important for achieving accurate evaluation of musculoskeletal kinematics and dynamics Researchers have reported on the KFA primarily with regard to the manual control of flexion-extension movements carried out passively without any voluntary intervention. Active touch and movement refer to what is generally called touching. Changes in skin stimulation caused by surfaces are altered by variations in motor activity. This fact is worth remembering because the locomotion and its locomotion are often overlooked. An inseparable pair is formed by surfaces. The goal of this research was to confirm the difference between touching and being touched. During locomotion, we were especially interested in measuring the instantaneous axis of the knee (IAK). In an effort to distill a sort of higher-order simplification of a knee model compared to the immense complexity of the biological structures of a human joint, we suggest the invariant structure of the knee. Relative to the immense complexity of empirical anatomical objects and the practice of biomechanical engineering, which are often misunderstood, this theory aimed to distill a kind of higher-order simplification.

Author (s) Details

Wangdo Kim
Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad de Ingenieria y Tecnologia – UTEC, Lima, Perú.

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