Environmental epigenetics is the study of how environmental factors influence cellular epigenetics and, as a result, human health. To control gene expression, epigenetic marks change the spatial conformation of chromatin. Behaviours, diet, and contaminants and industrial toxins are all environmental factors that have epigenetic implications. Environmental exposures can damage the foetus by impairing the epigenome of the developing organism to alter disease risk later in life. Epigenetic pathways are also involved during development in utero and at the cellular level, so environmental exposures may harm the foetus by impairing the epigenome of the developing organism to change disease risk later in life. Bioactive food components, on the other hand, can cause protective epigenetic changes throughout life, with early life nutrition being especially significant. Beyond their biology, an individual’s overall health status can be thought of as a synthesis of several environmental signals that begin during pregnancy and function through epigenetic modifications. This analysis looks at how the epigenome is influenced by the environment in health and disease, with an emphasis on cancer. Understanding the molecular effects of action, nutrients, and contaminants may aid in the development of preventative measures and personalised health programmes. Furthermore, epigenetic drugs may represent a potential strategy for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer, by restoring cellular differentiation. A better understanding of epigenetic effects and the signalling pathways triggered by bioactive food components will help in determining the function and potential benefit of nutrients in improving our health and lowering cancer risk.
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