A supernova remnant with a mass between 1.44 and 2.2 solar masses contracts down to a neutron star, according to a programme written in Excel. The declining gravitational potential slows time during the collapse. The pressure rises to the point that the contraction comes to a halt. Although the remnant is still contracting at greater than 2.2 solar masses, the gravitational potential causes time to relativistically freeze at the core, preventing the contraction until the pressure increases sufficiently to stop it, as it did in a neutron star. This also stops the flow of knowledge about the gravitational potential decline, so the frozen parts stay frozen and don’t contract any more, becoming hypothetical. Additional matter physically and relatively contracts on top of the frozen core, and the radius of the freeze point goes out. If the freeze made it all the way to the surface, it would be a black hole with a Schwarzschild radius, but it doesn’t quite make it. The field isn’t absolutely frozen. Even if these “almost black holes” lack an event horizon, they are nearly as small as the Schwarzschild radius and are difficult to see due to gravitational red change. There has been the formation of a black star. As a white dwarf with a mass greater than the Chandrasekhar limit of 1.44 solar masses contracts, the inner core is compressed to a density of more than 1×109 kg/m3 due to the high pressure and gravity. It would have a minimum density of 3.5 x 1015 kg/m3 near the surface after cooling and collapsing into a neutron star. This article discusses how these two densities apply to why supernova-created stellar black stars have a mass of less than 15 solar masses and supermassive black stars have a mass of more than 50,000 solar masses. The traditional black hole model is incapable of extracting such constraints, but the black star model has exposed them, as well as many others. Between the largest SBS and the smallest SMBS, a distance of missing black stars was discovered using this model. This has to do with the density difference that occurs as pressure compresses unstable matter from degenerate white dwarf matter to neutron matter.
Author (s) Details
P. David Clark
612 N Sandpiper, Ingleside on the Bay, Texas 78362, USA.
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