An assessment of Public Participation GIS and Web 2.0 technologies in urban planning practice in Canela, Brazil
Recent advances in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Web 2.0 technologies provide new ways of creating sophisticated Web applications that strengthen social interactions based on comments on online maps, which have the potential to improve Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) practices. In this paper, we address this promising approach to analyze the impact of collaborative Web 2.0 tools applied to PPGIS applications in urban planning actions. We develop a Web 2.0 PPGIS application through free, easy-to-use tools, which consist of a Web mapping service, with eligible geospatial data layers, where users explore and comment. A database stores the contributions in a format supported by GIS. We also set up a prototype version in Canela (Brazil), to test its usability. The results showed that it is a valuable approach for engaging the public. It could promote communication among users and decision makers in a more interactive and straightforward way. Besides, it is easy to set up and understandable by non-experts. The Web 2.0 PPGIS may serve as a social tool for any spatially-related issue involving community members in any context.
 Finding bugs is easy
Many techniques have been developed over the years to automatically find bugs in software. Often, these techniques rely on formal methods and sophisticated program analysis. While these techniques are valuable, they can be difficult to apply, and they aren’t always effective in finding real bugs.Bug patterns are code idioms that are often errors. We have implemented automatic detectors for a variety of bug patterns found in Java programs. In this paper, we describe how we have used bug pattern detectors to find serious bugs in several widely used Java applications and libraries. We have found that the effort required to implement a bug pattern detector tends to be low, and that even extremely simple detectors find bugs in real applications.From our experience applying bug pattern detectors to real programs, we have drawn several interesting conclusions. First, we have found that even well tested code written by experts contains a surprising number of obvious bugs. Second, Java (and similar languages) have many language features and APIs which are prone to misuse. Finally, that simple automatic techniques can be effective at countering the impact of both ordinary mistakes and misunderstood language features.
 Diagnostic models for procedural bugs in basic mathematical skills
A new diagnostic modeling system for automatically synthesizing a deep-structure model of a student’s misconceptions or bugs in his basic mathematical skills provides a mechanism for explaining why a student is making a mistake as opposed to simply identifying the mistake. This report is divided into four sections: The first provides examples of the problems that must be handled by a diagnostic model. It then introduces procedural networks as a general framework for representing the knowledge underlying a skill. The challenge in designing this representation is to find one that facilitates the discovery of misconceptions or bugs existing in a particular student’s encoding of this knowledge. The second section discusses some of the pedagogical issues that have emerged from the use of diagnostic models within an instructional system.
 Biology and Dispersal of the Watermelon Bug Coridius viduatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Dinidoridae) on Different Cucurbit Crops, in North Darfur State, Sudan
The watermelon bug, Coridius viduatus (F.) is a real threat to watermelon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) in western Sudan, where over 80% of the population relies economically on agriculture. In order to overcome this constraint, a study was carried out at University of Alfashir, North Darfur State, to investigate biology, food preference and dispersal of watermelon bug. A survey was conducted on season (2013/2014) to determine the movement and dispersal of the watermelon bug in the area around Alfashir. Biology of the bug was studied under laboratory conditions, preoviposition, oviposition, incubation and post oviposition periods were calculated. Food preference and non-preference by the bug to four watermelon varieties and tow cucurbit ones were also evaluated; a field experiment was conducted, a randomized complete block design was used. The field survey results indicated that there was a regular movement from plant shelters, mountain crevices and soil cracks to the field crop and back again to aestivation sites. Results showed that the bugs preferred improved watermelon varieties (Crimson, Sugar baby and Congo) to the local watermelon variety (Saphinga), the different life cycle stages of the bug were determined. The bug aestivation shelters were determined, local watermelon varieties could be cultivated however further work should be done to improve their productivity.
 Impact of Plant Density and Planting Dates on the Population of Major Pod Sucking Bugs in Relation to Damage and Yield of Improved Pigeonpea Cultivar in Owerri Rainforest Zone, Nigeria
Field study was undertaken to determine the population of three major pod sucking bugs namely Riptortus dentipes Fab. (Hemiptera: coreidae), Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stall (Hemiptera: coreidae), Anoplocnemis curvipes Fab (Hemiptera: coreidae) and their effect on damage, yield (kg ha-1) and yield components under varying plant densities and planting dates. The experiment was carried out at the Postgraduate Teaching and Research Farm, Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State. Experiment was laid out in a 3 x 4 factorial and treatments comprised of four plant density of 190,474 plants ha-1, 125,000 plants ha-1, 80,000 plants ha-1, 55,556 plants ha-1 and three planting dates, April (early season), July (Mid-season), and October (late season), 2009 and 2010. The results, show that there was significant (p<0.05) population of the pod sucking bugs on pigeonpea flowers and pods at high plant density and low on plants at low plant density. There was significant (p<0.05) population of C. tomentosicollis and A. curvipes in October while April and July planting seasons showed absence of C. tomentosicollis and A. curvipes The population of R. dentipes occurred throughout the season with peak population in April which decreased as planting was delayed till October.
 Bugs, G., Granell, C., Fonts, O., Huerta, J. and Painho, M., 2010. An assessment of Public Participation GIS and Web 2.0 technologies in urban planning practice in Canela, Brazil. Cities, 27(3), pp.172-181.
 Hovemeyer, D. and Pugh, W., 2004. Finding bugs is easy. Acm sigplan notices, 39(12), pp.92-106.
 Brown, J.S. and Burton, R.R., 1978. Diagnostic models for procedural bugs in basic mathematical skills. Cognitive science, 2(2), pp.155-192.
 Gubartalla, A.E.Z., Ibrahim, I.A.R. and Solum, S.M., 2018. Biology and Dispersal of the Watermelon Bug Coridius viduatus (F.)(Heteroptera: Dinidoridae) on Different Cucurbit Crops, in North Darfur State, Sudan. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, pp.1-9.
 Dialoke, S.A., Ogbedeh, K.O., Nwokeji, E.M., Chigbundu, I., Nnebue, M.O. and Cookey, C.O., 2018. Impact of Plant Density and Planting Dates on the Population of Major Pod Sucking Bugs in Relation to Damage and Yield of Improved Pigeonpea Cultivar in Owerri Rainforest Zone, Nigeria. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.1-20.