Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: A heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology.
The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
 Organic Brain Dysfunction and Child Psychiatric Disorder
The total population of 11,865 children of compulsory school age resident on the Isle of Wight was studied to determine the prevalence of epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and other neurological disorders. With the use of reliable methods, children selected from screening of the total population were individually studied by means of parental interviews and questionaries, neurological examination and psychiatric assessment of each child, information from school teachers, and perusal of the records of hospitals and other agencies. The association between organic brain dysfunction and psychiatric disorder was studied by comparing the findings in the children with epilepsy or with lesions above the brain stem (cerebral palsy and similar disorders) with those in (1) a random sample of the general population, (2) children with lesions below the brain stem (for example, muscular dystrophy or paralyses following poliomyelitis), and (3) children with other chronic physical handicaps not involving the nervous system (for example, asthma, heart disease, or diabetes).
 Imaging the ADHD brain: disorder-specificity, medication effects and clinical translation
A plethora of magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that ADHD is characterized by multiple functional and structural neural network abnormalities beyond the classical fronto-striatal model, including fronto-parieto-temporal, fronto-cerebellar and even fronto-limbic networks. There is evidence for a maturational delay in brain structure development which likely extends to brain function and structural and functional connectivity, but this needs corroboration by longitudinal imaging studies. Dysfunction of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex seems to be more pronounced relative to other pediatric disorders and is also the most consistent target of acute psychostimulant medication. Future studies are likely to focus on using neuroimaging for clinical translation such as for individual diagnostic and prognostic classification and as a neurotherapy to reverse brain function abnormalities.
 Study of Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Traumatic Brain Injury
Objective: This cross-sectional study was design to investigate prevalence and risk factors of generalized anxiety disorder in traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Materials and Methods: The Group studied consists of 204 patients of mild and moderate TBI between 14- days to one-year post injury. Demographic characteristics of the participants were assessed on a self-designed semi structured performa. Interviews focused on assessment of severity of TBI, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and quality of life (Qol) using GCS, GAD-7 and WHOBREF-QOL respectively.
Results: Total 204 patients were included. 11.76% participants were found to have generalized anxiety disorder. None of the demographic variables were associated with GAD except injury severity. Mild TBI patient (75.00%) had higher occurrence of GAD than the moderate cases (25.00%). GAD patients also had poor Qol than those without GAD in all domains except physical and social health domain. Neuroanatomical localization was also correlated with GAD. Left frontal contusions were the most common (37.50 %) lesions associated with GAD.
Conclusion: GAD is commonly associated, yet under diagnosed clinical entities in head injury and have tremendous impact in overall outcome measures. Every patient of head injury warrants psychiatric evaluation and concomitant treatment if required to ensure the attainment of not only neuroanatomical intact but overall productive and qualitative life vindicating the holistic and multidisciplinary treatment approach.
 Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Copper, Zinc and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in Patients with Dementia
The levels of BDNF, copper, zinc and common blood tests of two different groups of patients were considered: those with dementia syndrome and healthy older people. It would be premature to conclude that these indicators, with the exception of high density lipoprotein (HDL), are directly associated with clinical manifestations of this disorder. The HDL levels were significantly lower in dementia patients, compared to healthy control group, so it is possible to suggest that HDL can perform a protective function.
 Yeates, K.O., Bigler, E.D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C.A., Rubin, K.H., Stancin, T., Taylor, H.G. and Vannatta, K., 2007. Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: a heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology. Psychological bulletin, 133(3), p.535.
 Graham, P. and Rutter, M., 1968. Organic brain dysfunction and child psychiatric disorder. Br Med J, 3(5620), pp.695-700.
 Rubia, K., Alegria, A. and Brinson, H., 2014. Imaging the ADHD brain: disorder-specificity, medication effects and clinical translation. Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 14(5), pp.519-538.
 Sharma, A., Sharma, A., Jain, A., Mittal, R.S. and Gupta, I.D., 2015. Study of Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-8.
 Melnikov, P., Vargas, K.F.M., Coimbra, A.R., Zanoni, L.Z. and Nascimento, V.A., 2016. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Copper, Zinc and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in Patients with Dementia. International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, pp.1-5.