News Update on Water Resource : April 2021

Water resource development – the economics of project evaluation

The first third of the book is devoted to the development of the general theoretical framework for benefit-cost analysis, including concepts and criterion. The remainder compares the application of prevailing and proposed practices to such projects and programs as flood control, irrigation, navigation and electric power. The types of improved evaluation practices that need to be applied by resource agencies in order for benefit-cost analysis to provide a more reliable test of project justification are indicated. M.M.R. [1]

Reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability criteria for water resource system performance evaluation

Three criteria for evaluating the possible performance of water resource systems are discussed. These measures describe how likely a system is to fail (reliability), how quickly it recovers from failure (resiliency), and how severe the consequences of failure may be (vulnerability). These criteria can be used to assist in the evaluation and selection of alternative design and operating policies for a wide variety of water resource projects. The performance of a water supply reservoir with a variety of operating policies illustrates their use. [2]

Biological Integrity: A Long‐Neglected Aspect of Water Resource Management

Water of sufficient quality and quantity is critical to all life. Increasing human population and growth of technology require human society to devote more and more attention to protection of adequate supplies of water. Although perception of biological degradation stimulated current state and federal legislation on the quality of water resources, that biological focus was lost in the search for easily measured physical and chemical surrogates. The “fishable and swimmable” goal of the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (PL 92—500) and its charge to “restore and maintain” biotic integrity illustrate that law’s biological underpinning. Further, the need for operational definitions of terms like “biological integrity” and “unreasonable degradation” and for ecologically sound tools to measure divergence from societal goals have increased interest in biological monitoring. Assessment of water resource quality by sampling biological communities in the field (ambient biological monitoring) is a promising approach that requires expanded use of ecological expertise. One such approach, the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), provides a broadly based, multiparameter tool for the assessment of biotic integrity in running waters. IBI based on fish community attributes has now been applied widely in North America. The success of IBI has stimulated the development of similar approaches using other aquatic taxa. Expanded use of ecological expertise in ambient biological monitoring is essential to the protection of water resources. Ecologists have the expertise to contribute significantly to those programs. [3]

Relationships between Farmers’ Behaviors towards Environmental Resources and Water Resource Management: The Case of Khuzestan Province, Iran

Aims: The present study concerns the environmental behaviors of farmers active in the Zohreh-Jarrahi, Maroun and Gotvand irrigation networks regarding water management in the farm.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Place and Duration of Study: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the afore-mentioned irrigation networks in the Khuzestan province between January of 2008 and October of 2009.

 Methodology: Using the simple random sampling technique, 278 farmers (26, 70 and 128 farmers from the Zohreh-Jarrahi, Maroun and Gotvand irrigation networks respectively) were chosen. This sample comprised of 258 males and 20 females, aged 16-87 years old. The theoretical framework of the present study was based on the key aspects of the health belief model (HBM), later completed by adding a few other effective variables. The data were then analyzed by the multivariable technique, using SPSS software.

Results: The findings of this study indicate that the key aspects of the health belief model significantly predict the farmers’ water management behaviors. In other words, understanding the advantages and barriers associated with the preservation of water resources influences the farmers’ water management behaviors through affecting their attitudes. Furthermore, existing attitudes towards water management practices in thereat, understanding the barriers associated with the preservation of water resources, and last but not least, perceived susceptibility against threats to water resources, all directly influence the farmers’ water management behaviors. Access to information regarding advanced water management techniques in the farm is another variable included in the theoretical framework used for this study, playing a key role in predicting the farmers’ management attitudes and behaviors.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates a successful and clear application of the health belief model to water management in the farm using a few other significant variables, while enhancing the HBM for application to other issues related to the preservation of environmental resources. A few suggestions have been proposed at the end of the present study based on research findings. [4]


Current and Future Water Resources for Agriculture in Qatar State

The state of Qatar is a peninsular Arab country, as a small, hot and dry peninsula with an average rainfall of around 80 millimeters per annum, which is placed Qatar among countries of the lowest levels of rainfall in the world. There are no surface perennial streams in Qatar. Direct and indirect recharge from rainfall to the groundwater is the sole natural water resource in the country. The recharge takes place from the direct infiltration of heavy rainfall (>10 mm) through the fractures surrounding the water basins (watersheds) .Indirect recharge is the main recharge to groundwater  and it has a complicated mechanism which comprises run-off from surrounding catchments, ponding in depressions, evaporation from water surfaces and percolation of the remainder after the soil deficit has been satisfied.

The groundwater is considered the main natural water resource available for agriculture in Qatar; about 99% of the abstracted groundwater is used for irrigation. This continuous abstraction from groundwater leads to quality and quantity deterioration in the groundwater table and several production wells.

In 2007 the government has issued the ministerial decree No. 20 on “Rationalizing the use of groundwater and preventing its deterioration”  the decree banned the digging of new production wells to prevent this over extraction, in 2008 the Qatari government set its goals to protect and sustain its natural environment. The decree was amended and a proposed banning of the existing wells in the specific areas under a groundwater salinity of less than 2000 ppm for irrigating fodder crops, this amendment is intended to be a short-term solution till the issuance of the National Water Act.

This paper aims to review the current situation of water consumption for agricultural production and suggesting alternative water resources (Treated Sewage Effluent TSE with upgraded water quality) to comply with the decree No. 20. Gathering the available information and secondary data about TSE; agricultural production and environmental protection from governmental authorities and analyzed and presented in this paper.

The current total agricultural irrigated area, and water demand (excluding TSE) in the State of Qatar are 10,388 ha and 238 mcm respectively.

The Public Works Authority (PWA) has 3 main wastewater treatment plants plus other minor treatment plants that produced 634,860 m3 day-1 in 2013, amount of 196,445 m3 day-1 is in use for Roads and Expressways Irrigation, Local Landscaping Irrigation, Private Irrigation, Cooling, Industry (General) and Sand Washing. The remaining TSE volume 438,415 m3 day-1 (50.4 million cubic meter), can be used for agricultural production after upgrading Treated Sewage Works (TSW) treatment plants to quadratic treatment using Reverse Osmosis (R.Os) which will cover about 21.3% of current agriculture water requirements. If all of the reaming volume of TSE will be available for Agriculture then above 95% percent of water demand by 2020 for agriculture will be covered. [5]


[1] Eckstein, O., 1958. Water resource development-the economics of project evaluation. Water resource development-the economics of project evaluation.

[2] Hashimoto, T., Stedinger, J.R. and Loucks, D.P., 1982. Reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability criteria for water resource system performance evaluation. Water resources research, 18(1), pp.14-20.

[3] Karr, J.R., 1991. Biological integrity: a long‐neglected aspect of water resource management. Ecological applications, 1(1), pp.66-84.

[4] Ajili, A. and Mousavi, T. (2013) “Relationships between Farmers’ Behaviors towards Environmental Resources and Water Resource Management: The Case of Khuzestan Province, Iran”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 3(2), pp. 455-469. doi: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/2451.

[5] Ajili, A. and Mousavi, T., 2013. Relationships between farmers’ behaviors towards environmental resources and water resource management: the case of Khuzestan Province, Iran. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.455-469.

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