The Use and Misuse of Fruit Juice in Pediatrics
Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses.
 Pomegranate juice: a heart-healthy fruit juice
Pomegranate juice is a polyphenol-rich fruit juice with high antioxidant capacity. In limited studies in human and murine models, pomegranate juice has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects. Pomegranate juice significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion areas in immune-deficient mice and intima media thickness in cardiac patients on medications. It also decreased lipid peroxidation in patients with type 2 diabetes, and systolic blood pressure and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in hypertensive patients. Thus, the potential cardioprotective benefits of pomegranate juice deserve further clinical investigation, and evidence to date suggests it may be prudent to include this fruit juice in a heart-healthy diet.
 Fruit juice consumption by infants and children: a review.
The pattern of fruit juice consumption has changed over time. Fifty years ago, orange juice was the major juice produced and it was consumed primarily to prevent scurvy. Now, apple juice is the juice of choice for the under 5 age group. While fruit juice is a healthy, low-fat, nutritious beverage, there have been some health concerns regarding juice consumption. Nursing bottle caries have long been recognized as a consequence of feeding juice in bottles, using the bottle as a pacifier, and prolonged bottle feeding. Non-specific chronic diarrhea or “toddler’s” diarrhea has been associated with juice consumption, especially juices high in sorbitol and those with a high fructose to glucose ratio.
 Heavy Metal Analysis of Fruit Juice and Soft Drinks Bought From Retail Market in Accra, Ghana
Aims: To determine the levels of Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn in fruit juice and soft drinks bought from retail markets in Accra as heavy metals contamination has become a matter of public health concern but this has not received much research attention in Ghana especially fruit juice and soft drinks contamination through heavy metals.
Study Design: The results obtained from the analysis were compared with WHO specifications of heavy metals in drinking water.
Place and Duration of Study: Food Chemistry Division of CSIR- Food Research Institute in Accra, Ghana between June and December 2012
Methodology: Twenty bottles comprising of fruit juice and soft drinks bought from retail markets in Accra, were analysed using the dry ashing method. Acid digestion was carried out during the sample preparation and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer used to read the absorbance values at appropriate wavelength of the interested metal in the sample solution. The metal content of the samples were derived from calibration curves made up of minimum of three standards.
Results: The mean concentrations of heavy metals were in the order Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu for fruit juice and soft drinks. In the fruit juice samples analysed, the mean concentrations of heavy metals determined were 0.83±0.48 mg.L-1, 9.07±3.62 mg.L-1, 1.59±0.90 mg.L-1, 3.33±1.29 mg.L-1 for Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn respectively whiles in the soft drink samples, the mean concentrations of heavy metals determined were 0.34±0.05 mg.L-1, 7.72±3.12 mg.L1, 0.72±0.99 mg.L1-, 1.07±0.66 mg.L-1 for Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn respectively.
Conclusion: The concentration of some of the heavy metals found in both fruit juice and soft drinks were above the safe limit recommended by WHO.
 Anti-collagenase, Anti-elastase and Antioxidant Activities of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica root Extract and Coccinia grandis Fruit Juice Extract: An In vitro study
PMM significantly inhibited elastase activity with IC50 of 143.0±4.78 µg/mL, and its anti-collagenase activity was comparable with that of the positive control, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Based on the same concentration, the elastase inhibitory activity of PMM was significantly higher compared with that of CGJ (P< .001), while the collagenase inhibitory activities of both extracts were comparable. Total phenolic content, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of 1.0 g equivalent of the dried roots of PMM were 0.6±0.04 mg of GAE, 16.4±6.20 and 9.3±1.38 µmole TE respectively. The antioxidant values of PMM were significantly higher compared with those of 1000 µg/mL of CGJ (GAE, P< .0001; DPPH radical scavenging activity, P< .05; ABTS radical scavenging activity, P< .001). The free radical scavenging activities of both plant extracts were positively correlated with their total GAE (P < .0001).
 Baker, S., Cochran, W., Greer, F., Heyman, M., Jacobson, M., Jaksic, T., Krebs, N., Blum-Kemelor, D., Dietz, W., Grave, G. and Harris, S., 2001. The use and misuse of fruit juice in pediatrics. Pediatrics, 107(5), pp.1210-1213.
 Basu, A. and Penugonda, K., 2009. Pomegranate juice: a heart-healthy fruit juice. Nutrition reviews, 67(1), pp.49-56.
 Dennison, B.A., 1996. Fruit juice consumption by infants and children: a review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 15(sup5), pp.4S-11S.
 Ofori, H., Owusu, M. and Anyebuno, G., 2013. Heavy metal analysis of fruit juice and soft drinks bought from retail market in Accra, Ghana. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, pp.423-428.
 Chattuwatthana, T. and Okello, E., 2015. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and antioxidant activities of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica root extract and Coccinia grandis fruit juice extract: an in vitro study. European journal of medicinal plants, pp.318-327.