Associations of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Framingham Cardiovascular Risk in African Type 2 Diabetics with Diabetic Retinopathy

The aim of this study was to see whether high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and Framingham cardiovascular disease (CVD) were linked to diabetic retinopathy (DR). The most common cause of visual impairment (VD) in the world is DR.

Methodologies: A cross-sectional analysis of 200 T2DM Central Africans was conducted. Using Tertiles of HDL-C (stratification = lowest 40 mg/dL, average or intermediate = 40 – 74.9 mg/dL, highest 75 mg/dL) and Framingham risk stratification (ten percent and ten percent ), logistic regression models were used to examine socio-biographical, laboratory, and eye examination key outcome measures.

Results: Of the 200 T2DM patients, 120 (35.5%) had DR, and of the DR patients, 116 (n = 96.7%) had VD. Between DR rates and HDL-C stratification, there was a significant U-shaped relationship. The significant independent determinants of DR in the usual HDL-C population were elevated 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 10-year Framingham risk > 10%. Smoking status and a 10-year Framingham risk of 10% or less were substantially independent determinants of DR in the highest HDL-C category. Smoking status, insulin resistance, and rising levels of HDL-C were important independent determinants of DR in the 10-year Framingham risk 10% category.

Conclusion: In T2DM Central Africans, DR and VD remain a public health problem. HDL-C levels tend to be higher in T2DM Central Africans with DR and VD than in T2DM Central Africans without DR and VD. HDL-C may be more tightly regulated by genetic factors (black Bantu ethnicity) in T2DM patients with DR than the other lipoproteins, as recorded in Indians, African-Americans, and Japanese people. Smoking status, global cardiovascular disease risk, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress were the most preventable environmental risk factors for DR.

Author (s) Details

Benjamin Longo-Mbenza
Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa.

Moise Mvitu Muaka
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Congo.

Thierry Gombet
Emergency Service, University Hospital Centre, Brazzaville, Congo.

Igor Longo Phemba
School of International Studies, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, China.

Steve Cook
he Eye Centre, East London, South Africa.

Emmanuel Mve Mengome
Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Libreville, Gabon.

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