A Rapid Analysis of Soybean Oil Minor Component Profile as a Tool to Predict Its Oxidative Stability: A Comprehensive View

Vegetable oils’ minor components are crucial to their oxidative stability. Two commercial soybean oils, one virgin and the other refined, with very similar acyl group compositions but different minor component profiles, were subjected to accelerated storage conditions to see how much they could influence oil behavior under oxidative conditions. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and direct immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC/MS) were used to characterize them, while 1H-NMR was used to monitor oil oxidation. When compared to refined oil, the virgin oil has lower levels of tocols and sterols, as well as a higher free fatty acid content, resulting in lower oxidative stability. This is based on the virgin oil’s faster acyl group degradation and earlier generation of oxidation products. These compounds include mono- and di-hydroperoxides, monohydroxy-conjugated dienes, epoxides, monoketo-conjugated dienes, di- or poly-hydroxy-compounds, formic acid, formates or poly-formates, compounds with 5-alkyl-(5H)-furan-2-one structure, and aldehydes, some of which were discovered for the first time in the oxidation process of soybean oil. These findings show that the quality of commercial virgin soybean oil is not always superior to that of refined soybean oil, and that a simple and rapid analysis of oil minor components using DI-SPME-GC/MS could be used to determine quality levels among oils originating from the same plant species and similar unsaturation levels in terms of composition in potentially bioactive compounds and oxidative scavenging.

Author (s) Details

A. S. Martin-Rubio
Food Technology. Faculty of Pharmacy. Lascaray Research Center. University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Paseo de la Universidad nº 7, 01006 Vitoria, Spain.

P. Sopelana
Food Technology. Faculty of Pharmacy. Lascaray Research Center. University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Paseo de la Universidad nº 7, 01006 Vitoria, Spain.

María D. Guillén
Food Technology. Faculty of Pharmacy. Lascaray Research Center. University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Paseo de la Universidad nº 7, 01006 Vitoria, Spain.

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