In terms of technology, the electric power system is made up of many components that are integrated into each section of the system. This system is an integrated service that generates and distributes energy such that energy customers can utilise it reliably and safely while staying within operating performance limits. As a result, the power system structure is made up of several basic components, including a generator unit that generates electric power, a transmission line that transmits the generated electricity, and a distribution line that distributes power to customers with various types of loads. The electric power system now has a lot of complex equipment and many innovative technologies being implemented. Many traditional power systems have recently been replaced by contemporary power systems. In addition, the power system grows increasingly complicated, necessitating greater control and monitoring. Furthermore, as the number of applicable technologies has increased and demand has increased, the power system structure has evolved into a huge and sophisticated network that incorporates many new and old systems into the main link. On the other hand, many local systems have been extended into contemporary power systems in response to these advancements in order to increase reliability and quality while transporting energy from the generator site to load areas. Furthermore, the generation system continues to evolve with many different types of primary energy being utilised, the transmission and distribution systems continue to expand to meet the load in transferring and distributing electric power, and load demand continues to grow with various sorts of energy services being required. However, the power system must be able to maintain an adequate power balance in order to run safely and reliably in situations where demand growth is expected. Furthermore, while renewable energy sources can reduce pollutants and boost green potential energy sources, the presence of renewable energy sources can suppress existing power generation from the clean energy side. This study examines the functioning of a power system based on the topological development of a local interconnection system and a captive power plant to address this issue. Local interconnection is also being developed in order to improve the reliability, stability, and adequacy of electric power in fulfilling load demands. When a solar power plant is erected and power lines are modified, this study is used to evaluate the performance of an extended local power system. To determine the performance of the extended structure, the operation assessment was approached utilising a power flow study (PFS) in this work. The Takagi technique (TM) and Thunderstorm Algorithm (TA) for a hybrid structure of the PFS by considering the integrated renewable energy source also help in the recovery process (IRES). The results reveal that different scenarios are carried out in varied performances and have distinct ramifications based on technological scenarios. The hybrid PFS structure can be treated using TM and TA. Furthermore, this research is being utilised to assess the effectiveness of a local power grid that has been increased by the inclusion of solar power plants located where the sun has the most potential for radiation energy. Where the captive power plant helps to cover the load, IRES has had an impact on system performance. To estimate the performance of the expanded structure under operational limitations and environmental requirements, the initial operating circumstances of the system are simulated using a PFS. The TM, which is integrated into the power flow analysis pattern, facilitates the method for obtaining operating points in particular. Furthermore, this work incorporates intelligent computation, which is reflected in the form of an evolutionary algorithm known as TA, which is utilised to improve the hybrid power flow analysis structure by taking into account renewable energy sources integrated into the power system. The results reveal that the varied scenarios employed produce varying results and operating circumstances, based on technological considerations. This research also offers varied implications for system performance based on renewable energy adoption. Captive power improves system performance and can help to balance the power supply. In addition, the method and algorithm utilised can be used to evaluate a hybrid power structure that includes both a traditional supply grid and solar cell centres.
A. N. Afandi
Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Jatim, Indonesia and Smart Power and Advanced Energy Systems (SPAES) Research Center, Batu, Jatim, Indonesia.
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