Study on Spatial Variability of Soil Properties in an Agrarian Reform Settlement in Chapadinha, Brazil

The variability of soil chemical and physical properties must be studied in order to develop appropriate management practices. Without proper planning, land use results in soil depletion and low crop yield, resulting in a decline in the socioeconomic and technological level of the rural population. The purpose of this research was to assess the spatial variability of soil properties in the Malhada do Meio settlement in order to subsidize soil use planning. The settlement is 630.86 ha in size and is located in Chapadinha, MA, Brazil. Seasonal submontane deciduous forest and steppe savanna dominate the vegetation. The geology is made up of Itapecuru Formation sandstones and siltstones, as well as colluvial and alluvial deposits. The relief consists of hills with rounded and flat tops, an average altitude of 67 m, and ferruginous duricrusts that are frequently covered over. In Plintossolos, Neossolo, and Gleissolo, a total of 183 georeferenced soil samples were collected at depths of 0.00-0.20 m. The chemical variables pH(CaCl2), H+Al, Al, SB, V, CEC, P, K, OM, Ca, Mg, SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 were investigated, as well as particle size variables clay, silt, and sand. There were descriptive statistical and geostatistical analyses performed. Most variables had a high coefficient of variation (CV), with the exception of pH, which had a low CV and sand, which had a medium CV. The exponential and spherical models were fitted to the experimental semivariograms of these variables. The values ranged from 999 m to 3,690 m. There are three distinct areas for land use planning for the variables pH(CaCl2), SB, and clay. Due to higher macronutrient content, organic matter, and pH, the central part of the area (zone III), where the Plintossolos Pétricos and Neossolos Flvicos occur, is the most suitable for crops. For environmental preservation, zones I and II are indicated. This study defined homogeneous areas of soil fertility management at high and low levels.

Author (s) Details

James Ribeiro de Azevedo
Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Chapadinha, Maranhão, Brasil.

Célia Regina Paes Bueno
Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinária, Departamento de Solos, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil.

Gener Tadeu Pereira
Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinária, Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil.

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