Advanced Study on Iron Fertilization with Enhanced Phytoplankton Productivity under Minimal Sulfur Compounds and Grazing Control Analysis in HNLC Region

The current study quantified the importance of HNLC (high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll) regions and their grazing control with improved iron fertilization for climate change. Sulfur compounds (S) such as volcanic ash and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in batch cultures confirmed the limitation of iron (Fe) for phytoplankton growth in HNLC regions, with a chemical sediment of Fe3S4 showing 4.06 wt percent. Since 1993, iron fertilization technologies have been developed, but they have not been practical in providing sufficient amounts of bioavailable iron due to sedimentary iron sulfides caused by undersea corrosion. Sulfur compounds found in volcanic eruptions The proposed iron fertilization technology was improved to increase the bioavailability of iron to phytoplankton by retaining as few sulfur compounds as possible in HNLC regions. According to data analysis from the 2000 EisenEx Experiment, the low productivity of phytoplankton by grazing control in HNLC regions was 6 percent diatoms, 52 percent copepods, and 42 percent krill. at the meeting point of the Antarctic and African tectonic plates All previous iron fertilization experiments were carried out in HNLC regions enriched in volcanic sulfur compounds. The current study found that enhanced phytoplankton productivity in batch culture without sedimentary iron sulfides is only possible if sulfur compounds are minimal, as they are in South Georgia’s Shag Rocks (53°S, 42°W) in the Scotia Sea in the Southern Ocean.

Author(s) Details

Tai-Jin Kim
Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Suwon, Hwasung-City, 18323, Republic of Korea.

G. H. Hong
Korea Institute of Ocean Science Technology, Ansan-City, 15627, Republic of Korea.

D. G. Kim
LED Agri-bio Fusion Technology Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Icksan-City, 54596, Republic of Korea.

Mark Baskaran
Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.

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