Greener Synthesis of O, S, N-Nitrogen-Containing Heterocycles in Water, PEG, and Bio-Based Solvents

Solvents used in chemistry play an important role in the environmental performance of processes in corporate and academic laboratories. Their impact on costs, health safety, and the environment cannot be overstated. Quantitatively, solvents are the most abundant constituents of chemical transformations; therefore, acting on solvents and replacing standard solvents with safer products can have a great ecological impact. However, not all green solvents are suitable for the wide scope of organic chemistry reactions. A second point to consider is that 50% of pharmaceutical drugs are Compounds containing nitrogen heterocycles As a result, it appeared necessary to provide an overview of the more environmentally friendly methods for synthesizing this class of compounds. All publications published since 2000 that describe green reactions leading to the formation of nitrogen heterocycles using safe solvents were considered for this review. Because of their low toxicity, we chose water, PEG, and bio-based solvents. The synthesis of five-, six-, and seven-membered aromatic nitrogen heterocycles using green reactions is described. We describe three biologically based solvents that have been reported as viable alternatives in the synthesis of N-heterocycles: meglumine, ethyl lactate and Lactic acid.

Author (S) Details

Joana F. Campos
Institute of Organic and Analytical Chemistry (ICOA), University of Orleans, UMR-CNRS 7311, BP 6759, Rue de Chartres 45067 Orleans Cedex 2, France.

Sabine Berteina-Raboin
Institute of Organic and Analytical Chemistry (ICOA), University of Orleans, UMR-CNRS 7311, BP 6759, Rue de Chartres 45067 Orleans Cedex 2, France.

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