Occurrence of Typhoidal and Non-typhoidal Salmonellae among Poultry Workers in the Southern, Nigeria: A Recent Study

Most developing countries still have endemic typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, which are spread on a large scale through contaminated food and water. Poultry has also been identified as a common food source for Salmonella enteritidis infections since the early 2000s. In Akwa Ibom State, 500 blood, stool, cloaca swab, and egg shell swab specimens were collected from poultry, non-poultry workers, and birds and tested for Salmonella species using standard cultural and serological techniques. Overall, the prevalence rate was 117. (23.4 percent ). Salmonella species were found in all three senatorial districts of the state, in varying percentages. Salmonella isolates were found in 42 (25%) of Uyo senatorial districts, 35 (20.8%) of Eket senatorial districts, and 40 (23.8%) of Ikot Ekpene senatorial districts. Out of 372 human subjects screened, 77 (20.7%) were positive, with 38 (20.4%) isolated from non-poultry workers and 39 (21.0%) isolated from poultry workers in the three senatorial districts. 40 (31.3 percent) of the 128 poultry product samples tested were isolated. 23 (18%) were isolated from cloaca swabs, and 17 (13.3%) were isolated from egg shell swabs. All of the serologically significant Typhoid fever cases in this study were confirmed by blood culture. According to sero-grouping and sample collection source, 23.9 percent S. typhi was isolated. S. gallinarum, S. enteritidis, S. pullorum, S. paratyphi A, and S. typhimurium were isolated from bird Cloaca swab and Egg shell swab among poultry products. Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella typhi were not isolated from humans or poultry. Salmonella serovars such as S. gallinarium, S. typhi, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis are prevalent in Akwa Ibom State, and regular consumption of poultry and eggs without proper disinfection and boiling poses a serious public health risk. According to the demographic data obtained in this study, the majority of poultry workers in the Three senatorial districts’ residents were between the ages of 21 and 30 (34 percent), 39 percent were non-graduates, and 30.4 percent were secondary school dropouts. Amoxacillin-Clavulanic acid was found to be 100 percent susceptible to S. gallinarum, S. paratyphi A, 93 percent susceptible to S. typhi, and 80 percent susceptible to S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, and Spullorum. Salmonella gallinarum was completely sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, whereas all isolates were completely resistant to the antibacterial agents Oxacillin and Tylosin. The emergence of multiple drug-resistant Salmonella from humans and poultry suggests that the continued use of drugs as growth promoters in poultry should be reconsidered. Salmonella can also be sourced from other sources.

Author (S) Details

Dr. Etanguno Effiong Owowo
Department of Microbiology, Akwa Ibom State University (AKSU), Nigeria.

Dr. Veronica Jariath Umoh
Department of Microbiology, Akwa Ibom State University (AKSU), Nigeria.

Dr. (Mrs). Iquo Effiong Okon
Health Initiative for Stability & Safety in Africa (HIFASS), Uyo, Nigeria.

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