Techniques for Amelioration of Trace Metal Contaminated Soils

Trace metals are present in small amounts in the environment and are ubiquitous. The geological substrate is typically the primary reservoir of trace elements, followed by the oceans, soil, biota, and atmosphere. Trace metal contamination refers to their anthropogenic accumulation, which may or may not cause harm to the system or organism. Soil is an essential component of natural ecosystems because environmental sustainability is heavily reliant on a healthy ecosystem. Pollutants, unlike other environmental components, have a long residence time in soil. As a result, soil acts as a sink or filter, accumulating pollutants quickly but depleting them slowly. Effective heavy metal accumulation monitoring necessitates knowledge of the toxicity threshold limits of these metals in soils, plants, and animals, including humans. By planning metal loading rates in such a way that phyto-/zoo-toxic limits of the metals are not exceeded, these toxicity limits serve a dual purpose of maintaining both soil and crop productivity. Soil remediation is the process of returning soil to a state of ecological stability. It supports or is supported to condition prior to disturbance, along with the establishment of plant communities. Phytoremediation, which refers to the use of green plants and their associated microbiota for the in-situ treatment of contaminated soil, is a term used to describe plant-based bioremediation technologies. Plants have three basic strategies for growing in metal-contaminated soil, and they are classified as metal excluders, metal indicators, and metal hyperaccumulators based on this. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase the capacity of plants to sequester heavy metals by recycling nutrients, maintaining soil structure, detoxifying chemicals, and controlling pests. while reducing heavy metal toxicity by altering their bioavailability Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are soil microorganisms that form mutual symbiotic relationships with the majority of higher plants, establishing a direct physical link between soil and plant roots. The fungi can hasten the regeneration of severely degraded lands, such as coal mines or waste sites with high levels of heavy metals. Traditionally, contaminated soils have been improved with amendments such as lime, phosphate, and organic matter. In general, the addition of lime reduces the bioavailability of heavy metals.

Author (S) Details

Dr. Amrit Kumar Jha
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Birsa Agricultural University), Sahibganj-816109 (Jharkhand), India.

Mr. Kaushik Chatterjee
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Birsa Agricultural University), Sahibganj-816109 (Jharkhand), India.

Dr. Birendra Kumar Mehta
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Birsa Agricultural University), Sahibganj-816109 (Jharkhand), India.

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