The first chapter of this book begins with a definition of nano, nanoscale, and nanometer, as well as an introduction to the current period of Nanoscience, nanomaterials, and nanotechnology. The literature abstract is organised into parts and subsections and is provided as a sequential text. In summary, some examples have been used to demonstrate how bulk and nanomaterials differ based on the size of particles used as building blocks. The physical and chemical properties of the same substance in bulk and nanoform have been shown to fluctuate dramatically depending on particle size. There is also a distinction between nanoscience and nanotechnology. Nanomaterials are classified as 3D, 2D, 1D, and 0D materials due to the reduction in particle size (dimensions). It has been attempted to classify nanomaterials by accurately defining them with figures. The literature on what morphology is, how morphology helps to classify synthesised nanomaterials, and the usefulness of morphology for researchers and scientists to locate the right application field for synthesised nanomaterials can be found in the morphology section. In chapter 2, a brief introduction to electron microscopes, such as SEM and TEM, has been given to analyse the morphology of nanomaterials, and its detailed theory has been given. There are also some examples of nanomaterial morphology. Later in the manuscript, the merits and disadvantages of top-down and bottom-up methodologies for nanomaterial fabrication are discussed. The physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have been briefly discussed as a function of particle size. The surface to volume ratio, quantum confinement, and reduced structural imperfection or flaws of nanomaterials are all stated. Then, a focus on particle size dependent physical properties of nanomaterials, such as structural, thermal, magnetic, optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as the causes for each property, was placed. By addressing specific numerical issues, distinctive properties of nanomaterials such as surface area to volume ratio and quantum confinement become prevalent when particle size decreases. After then, the nanocluster hypothesis was presented in full. The first chapter concluded with theory on 2D nanomaterials (Quantum wells), 1D nanomaterials (Quantum wires), and 0D nanomaterials (Nanoparticles – Nanoclusters, Quantum dots, and Buckyballs), as well as detailed theory on some special nanomaterials, such as fullerenes (0D nanomaterials), carbon nanotubes (1D nanomaterials), and graphene (2D nanomaterial). The second part of this book begins with an overview of nanotechnology, covering what it is, how it came to be, when the concept of nanotechnology became popular, its benefits, goals, and key elements. The gas (vapour) phase fabrication and liquid phase fabrication are highlighted as the two approaches that belong to the bottom-up approach after introducing two primary ways (top-down and bottom-up) for nanomaterial preparation. The theory of various methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials, such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD – Gas Phase Fabrication), Sol-gel method, and hydrolyzed colloid reaction (HCR) technique (wet chemical methods – Liquid Phase Fabrications), has been explained in detail under the heading of bottom-up approach. A thorough description of how to determine the particle size of nanomaterials using the BET theory and the Debye-Scherrer method for X-Ray diffraction patterns has been provided. Then, to examine the morphology and internal structure of nanomaterials, the s theory on electron microscopy, detail theory on scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were introduced. The second chapter concluded with several applications of nanomaterials in various fields, nanotechnology issues, and numerical problems that were solved.
Upendra B. Mahatme
Department of Physics, K. Z. S. Science College, Bramnhi- Kalmeshwar, R.T.M. Nagpur University, India.
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