Overview of Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with a Focus on Histology

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disorder in which a person’s liver accumulates excessive fat despite never having consumed excessive alcohol. Simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are two types of this disease (NASH). NAFLD/NASH is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of paediatric NAFLD has increased in recent years, along with the prevalence of childhood obesity. Pediatric NAFLD is thought to affect between 2.6 and 9.6 percent of children, and it is associated to sex, age, and ethnicity. When it comes to the aetiology of NAFLD, the “two-hit” model is widely accepted, and oxidative stress is thought to play a crucial role in the second hit. Despite the importance of clinical symptoms, test data, and imaging studies in diagnosing NAFLD/NASH, liver biopsy remains the gold standard. Furthermore, a liver biopsy is required to determine the degree of necro-inflammatory alteration and fibrosis in NASH patients. Type 1 and type 2 NASH are the two types of steatohepatitis, with type 2 NASH being present in up to 51% of juvenile NAFLD patients. However, as we and others have observed, type 1 and 2 patterns frequently overlap. Despite the fact that medicine has been studied in clinical trials, the core of NAFLD/NASH treatment remains diet and exercise.

Author(s) Details

Yoshihisa Takahashi
Department of Pathology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan.

Toshio Fukusato
Department of Pathology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan.

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