In several countries throughout the world, treated municipal wastewater fish are used in fish farming. Due to harmful chemicals and microbiological pollution, it can be dangerous to fish and people who eat it. The effects of heavy metals (Ag, Al, As, and B) on the nervous system, skeletal, and skin tissues of fish, as well as their accumulation in these tissues, are discussed in this study using fish fed in a wastewater treatment plant with secondary treatment as an example. Seasonally, the levels of Ag, Al, As, and B in treated effluent, as well as the skeleton, skin, eyes, and brain tissues of Carassius gibelio species, were studied. The size order of Ag and B concentrations, according to annual averages, was skeleton> skin> eyes>brain and skeleton> skin>brain>eye, respectively. Also, As and Al had skin>brain>eyes>skeleton. All metals studied had TF (Transfer Factor) values greater than one in all four tissues, indicating that the metals induced bioaccumulation as a result of the treated effluent. In both skin and ocular tissue, the size order of TF and BCF (Bio-concentration Factor) values was Ag>Al>As>B. In the skeleton, it was Ag>Al>As>B, while in the brain, it was Al>As>Ag>B. In all tissues, Al’s HQ (Hazard Quotient) showed a carcinogenic risk threshold.
Author (S) Details
Department of Environmental Engineering, Bursa Uludag University, Faculty of Engineering, 16059, Bursa, Turkey.
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