A review on conventional and biotechnological approaches in white pepper production
White pepper is the dried seeds obtained from pepper berries (Piper nigrum L.) after the removal of the pericarp. It has been widely used as seasoning and condiments in food preparation. Globally, white pepper fetches a higher price compared to black pepper due to its lighter colour, preferable milder flavour and pungency. Increasing global demand of the spice outpaced the supply as the conventional production method used is laborious, lengthy and also not very hygienic. The most common conventional method is water retting but can also include pit soil, chemical, boiling, steaming and mechanical methods. The introduction of a biotechnological approach has gained a lot of interest, as it is a more rapid, convenient and hygienic method of producing white pepper. This technique involves the application of microorganisms and/or enzymes. This review highlights both conventional and latest biotechnological processes of white pepper production. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry 
Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on bell pepper production and green peach aphid infestations in New York
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known in various cropping systems to increase plant growth and vigor, as well as induce resistance to pathogens and pests. A commercial soil amendment containing a mixture of two species of Bacillus PGPR (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) was evaluated for impact on germination and initial growth of bell pepper plants, efficacy against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, and yield enhancement. Studies in the greenhouse revealed that pepper germination rate and dry weight of seedlings grown with or without Bacillus spp. did not differ significantly. In the field, the PGPR did not significantly reduce aphid populations compared to control plants, whereas imidacloprid was highly effective. An increase in yield compared with control plants was observed in the 2003 season, but not the following two seasons. Aphid pressure was high in 2003, and plants grown in the presence of Bacillus spp. exhibited substantial tolerance to aphids. That is, there were significantly higher populations of the green peach aphid on both control and PGPR-treated plants compared with imidacloprid-treated plants. However, fruit yield in the Bacillus spp. treatment was significantly greater than yield in the control treatment and similar to yield in insecticide-treated plots. Bacillus PGPR could be useful in a M. persicae management program for pepper plants grown in locations with consistently high aphid pressure. 
Environmental costs and mitigation potential in plastic-greenhouse pepper production system in China: A life cycle assessment
Intensive vegetable system is commonly considered as high environmental costs due to high inputs, thus quantifying the mitigation potential of various environmental impacts, and developing strategies to improve the sustainability of this system was critical. Here we used partial life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of a plastic-greenhouse pepper production system in China, and then employed an environmental impact gap methodology to analyze the mitigation potential of various environmental impacts and to establish better management strategy. The results showed that the global warming, acidification, eutrophication potentials and energy depletion of 160 farm-gate analysis were in average of 6.4 metric tons CO2-eq ha−1, 54.5 kg SO2-eq ha−1, 50.9 kg PO4-eq ha−1, and 57.3 GJ ha−1, respectively. Fertilizer accounted for 64.4%, 78.6% and 97.9% for the global warming, acidification, and eutrophication potential, respectively, while structural materials for greenhouse accounted for 58.6% of the total energy depletion. Based on analysis of yield gap and environmental impact gap by survey date grouping, the results showed that the pepper yield of the 1st quartile (best 25%) was 26.6% higher compared to the mean of all 160 farmer yields due to better nutrient and crop management. And at meantime, on per metric ton of pepper production, the global warming, acidification, eutrophication potentials and energy depletion were lower by 23.9%, 25.0%, 25.7%, and 23.2% in this system, respectively. In conclusion, the integrated nutrient-crop management strategies based on best famers’ practices could close the gap of environmental impacts significantly. 
Plant row spacing effect on growth and yield of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Western Kenya
Green pepper production based on the package of recommendations developed has not given the desired growth and yield performances in the world and specifically Kenya. Information is required with which to evolve the agronomic practices that will be adopted to maximize yield in green pepper production. Great attention should be paid when selecting the most appropriate spacing where there are very few reports and limited information regarding plant spacing in cultivation of the crop under the agro-climatic conditions of Kenya. Therefore, a field study was carried out at the Alupe Research Station, Busia County, to evaluate the growth and yield responses of green pepper under three row plant spacings namely: 50×40 cm, 40×40 cm and 30×40 cm during the long and short rainy seasons of 2015. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The treatment effects were measured on plant growth for 12 weeks and ripe fruit yield parameters which were later cleaned statistically analyzed. The plant spacing had significant variation in almost all the growth and yield components except the fruit length. In both seasons, the number of branches per plant, stem girth and number of fruits per plant were found to be significantly increased with the increasing of plant spacing but the plant height, number of leaves per plant, fruit breadth and yield per plant were found to be significantly increased with the decreasing plant spacing. The highest yield per plant of 555.1 g and 551.8 g were realized during the short and long rainy seasons respectively in the 40 by 40 cm spacing treatment. Considering the yield of fruits per plant, the 40 by 40 cm plant spacing appeared to be the most recommendable for the cultivation of green pepper 
Technical Efficiency of Chilli Pepper Production in Kaduna State, Nigeria
This paper deals with issues of improving technical efficiency and productivity of chilli pepper production in Kaduna state. It uses the stochastic frontier analysis approach for the estimation of production functions. The paper made use of a cross-sectional data between August and November 2014 crop season to obtain information from 200 chilli pepper farmers in the 3 local government areas of Kaduna State. The aims of this paper were to describe socio-economic characteristics of chilli pepper farmers and determine the technical efficiency of chilli pepper farmers in Kaduna state. Purposive and random sampling techniques were employed for data collection. The paper revealed that 37.5% of the respondents fall within the age of 30-39 years. The 53% had formal education. The household size ranged from 6-10 persons, majority of the farmers (72%) of chilli pepper farmers do not participate in any chilli pepper related cooperative association, and the result shows that 98.5% of chilli pepper farmers financed their production from their personal savings. The paper revealed that (58.5%) of chilli pepper farmers have extension visit; Results indicated that except for labour and agro-chemical, all other factors were significant (P < 0.01, P >0.1). The mean technical efficiency is 90%. The findings of this paper revealed that none of the sample chilli pepper farmers reached the frontier threshold. Thus, within the context of efficient agricultural production, output can still be increase by 10% using available inputs and technology. It was therefore recommended that timely and adequate supply of fertilizer should be made available to farmers at affordable price in order to enhance chilli pepper production 
 Aziz, N.S., Sofian‐Seng, N.S., Mohd Razali, N.S., Lim, S.J. and Mustapha, W.A., 2019. A review on conventional and biotechnological approaches in white pepper production. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99(6), pp.2665-2676.
 Herman, M.A.B., Nault, B.A. and Smart, C.D., 2008. Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on bell pepper production and green peach aphid infestations in New York. Crop Protection, 27(6), pp.996-1002.
 Wang, X., Liu, B., Wu, G., Sun, Y., Guo, X., Jin, Z., Xu, W., Zhao, Y., Zhang, F., Zou, C. and Chen, X., 2018. Environmental costs and mitigation potential in plastic-greenhouse pepper production system in China: A life cycle assessment. Agricultural Systems, 167, pp.186-194.
 Edgar, O.N., Gweyi-Onyango, J.P. and Korir, N.K., 2017. Plant row spacing effect on growth and yield of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Western Kenya. Archives of Current Research International, pp.1-9.
 Mohammed, B., Ahmed, B. and Abdulsalam, Z., 2015. Technical efficiency of chilli pepper production in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.1-9.