Chemical Characterization, Cytotoxicity Studies and In vivo Anti-inflammatory Activities of Anti-cancer Plant: Rutidea parviflora (Rubiaceae)


Inflammation plays a role in the rapid progression of malignant malignancies, which is a key problem in cancer treatment. Angiogenesis and cell proliferation are involved in both cancer and inflammation, and they work in very similar ways. Cancer-intrinsic inflammations have been demonstrated to promote cancer growth and prevent malignant cells from dying. As a result, controlling inflammation would be an effective chemoprevention and therapeutic technique. The goal of this study is to look into the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity effects of extracts from the root bark of Rutidea parviflora (Rubiaceae), a plant previously known for its anti-ovarian cancer properties and the isolation of palmatine, an anti-cancer compound, and urs-12-ene-24-oic acid, 3-oxo, methyl ester. This plant is well-known among natives in Delta State, Nigeria, for its anti-inflammatory effects, necessitating the current study. Using the America National Cancer Institute technique, organic and aqueous extracts were produced from pulverised root bark (NCI). To get four fractions, the organic extract was partitioned progressively in increasing order of polarity with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Standard phytochemical screening protocols were used, as well as chemical characterisation by GC-MS. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and sugars were found in the phytochemical screening results. The GC-MS analysis revealed the existence of a number of chemicals, the most bioactive of which were Hexadecanoic acid, 10-hydroxy-,methyl ester, Octadecanoic acid, and Eicosanoic acid. The production of inflammation was used to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts and fractions. The rats were divided into 12 test groups and two control groups, each with six rats. Sub-plantar administration of egg albumin (0.1 mL) was followed by therapy. A dose of 200 mg/kg of plant extracts was given to Group A, and a dose of 400 mg/kg of plant extracts was given to Group B. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was given to Group C as a positive control, whereas normal saline was given to Group D as a negative control. For extracts and fractions, statistical analysis revealed significance when compared to the negative control, as demonstrated by P0.05. The activities of the Group B organic extract, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were comparable to indomethacin for the fourth hour after induction of inflammation, demonstrating that the plant has strong anti-inflammatory activity. The Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Lethality Test (BSLT) and the Allium cepa Cytotoxicity Assay (ACCA) were used in the cytotoxicity investigations. The findings showed that RP has a very low toxicity and consequently a very high safety profile. As a result, therapeutic usage of this herb is highly encouraged, and more anti-inflammatory research is needed.

Author (S) Details

Johnson-Ajinwo Okiemute Rosa

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Udofia Cynthia Emmanuel

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Nyodee Dummene Godwin

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria and Health Services Department, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Iwofe, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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