Determining the Role of the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Diodia sarmentosa as a Free Radical Scavenger, and an Antioxidant in High Fat Diet Fed Wistar Rats

Diodia sarmentosa (Sw) is a straggling or procumbent perennial herb that grows in evergreen forest, riverine vegetation, and bushland. It has been traditionally used to cure a variety of diseases, including ulcers and diabetes. The role of Diodia sarmentosa ethanolic leaf extract as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant in high fat diet-fed wistar rats was examined in this study. The researchers want to see if the plant extract can scavenge free radicals in vitro and if it may improve antioxidant activity and minimise lipid peroxidation in vivo. Thirty (30) male wistar rats (150 g-200 g) were divided into five (5) groups: negative control rats, positive control rats, low dose extract rats treated with 250 mg/kg, high dose extract rats treated with 500 mg/kg of the extract, and standard antihyperlipidaemic drug rats treated with 5 mg/kg of Simvastatin in this study. For six (6) weeks, the rats were fed a high-fat diet containing Ghee and Coconut oil in a 3:1 ratio, and treatments began after the third week and continued until the sixth week. The role of Diodia sarmentosa as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant was determined by measuring nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the test rats’ serum. In vitro, Diodia sarmentosa scavenged free radicals by blocking nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in IC50 values of 907.17 g/ml 45.36 and 2173.44 g/ml 100.11, respectively. When compared to the PC group, antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx, and CAT in the test rats’ serum were significantly elevated (p0.05) by both doses of the extract, and its effect was similar to that of the standard medicine (Simvastatin). Both doses of the extract reduced GST activity in the test rats’ serum, although the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Finally, both doses of the extract in the serum of the test rats considerably reduced the measure of lipid peroxidation, i.e. malondialdehyde level (p0.05). To summarise, Diodia sarmentosa possesses antioxidant properties due to its ability to scavenge free radicals, replenish antioxidant enzymes, and minimise lipid peroxidation.

Author(S) Details

Stephen Chinedumije Korie
Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

Tobias I. Ndubuisi Ezejiofor
Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

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