News Update on capsicum Production : Nov 2021

Capsicum‐production, technology, chemistry, and quality part 1: History, botany, cultivation, and primary processing

The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) was known to ancient cultures and was more recently historically associated with the discovery of the New World. This genus provides many species and varieties used in flavoring foods popular in the cuisines of many parts of the world. From the pungent chilli to the colorful paprika and the bell pepper, with its remarkable aroma, the genus is of great interest for its chemistry, sensory attributes, and physiological action. The Capsicums, among the spices, are second only to black pepper in trade both in volume and value. The production of the different pungency forms, the processed seasonings, and the concentrated oleoresins, through technologically advanced processes and in specified standard grades, are critically reviewed. The pungency of Capsicum fruits, its evaluation, chemical structure relationship, its increasing acceptance and preference by a variety of populations are of great research interest. The wide traditional use in the growing regions and its intense physiological effects have attracted the attention of researchers of many different disciplines. These aspects are reviewed in four sequential parts. Part I deals with history, botany, cultivation, and primary processing. [1]

Capsicum — production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences

The spice Capsicum is the fruit of the cultivated species of the genus Capsicum (family, Solanaceae), C. annuum principally, and C. frutescens L. to a lesser extent. A third variety of C. annuum var. annuum fruits, the large‐sized, fleshy bell capsicum is used as a fresh vegetable and valued for its aroma, color, and crisp texture, but with no pungency. This variety is not considered in this series of reviews covering primary processing, production, international trade, chemistry, and biochemistry of functional components — the red keto carot‐enoids, the aromatic volatiles and the pungent capsaicinoids in Parts I to III. The valid qualitative aspects correlating the specific components of capsicum and their sensory responses are critically covered in Part IV. In this the concluding part of the series of reviews, the significant preference of the spice for initially evoking an aversive response, its potent physiologicial and pharmocological effects, and the aspects of structure‐activity relationships of the pungent stimuli of the capsaicinoids are reviewed. The beneficial effects particularly associated with long usage by some ethnic groups and its safe consumption levels, with a critical review of the studies on the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system, the sensory system, ther‐moregulation, nutritional impacts, and an overview of the five series is also detailed. [2]

Capsicum — Production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part IV. Evaluation of quality

Capsicum fruits are popular worldwide and are used in the cuisines of both the developing and the developed countries. With its different varieties, forms, and uses, the spice capsicum contributes to the entire gamut of sensory experience — color as finely ground paprika powder or extract in sausages, goulash, cheese, and snacks; both pungency and color as the many varieties of chillies used in Mexican, African, Indian, and southeast Asian cuisines; color, aroma, and mild pungency as the fresh green chillies used in many of the growing countries; and appearance, color, aroma, and texture as fresh fruit in salads and as a pickled and canned product. In three earlier parts in this series, the varieties, cultivation, and primary processing;4 the processed products, world production, and trade;5 and the chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli6 have been reviewed. In this part, the evaluation of quality through instrumental determination of the causal components and the sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency are discussed. Several methods for quantitative determination of the stimuli and the sensory evaluation of the responses to the stimuli are reviewed. The problems of sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency, the dominant attributes for validation of the instrumentally determined values for carotenoids, volatiles, or particular fractions, and total and individual capsaicinoids are specifically discussed. Summarized details of selected instrumental methods for evaluating the stimuli, which are either validated by correlation to sensorily perceived responses or to adopted standards, are given along with representative data obtained for discussing the adequacy and reliability of the methods. Pungency as a specific gustatory perception and the many methods proposed to evaluate this quality are discussed. A recommended objective procedure for obtaining reproducible values is discussed, and a method for relating different panel results is shown. With such a method, highly significant correlations have been shown between estimated total capsaicinoids and the determined pungency. The estimation of total capsaicinoids by any simple, reliable method is shown to be adequate for quality control of pungency of Capsicum fruits.[3]

Plant Row Spacing Effect on Growth and Yield of Green Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Western Kenya

Green pepper production based on the package of recommendations developed has not given the desired growth and yield performances in the world and specifically Kenya. Information is required with which to evolve the agronomic practices that will be adopted to maximize yield in green pepper production. Great attention should be paid when selecting the most appropriate spacing where there are very few reports and limited information regarding plant spacing in cultivation of the crop under the agro-climatic conditions of Kenya. Therefore, a field study was carried out at the Alupe Research Station, Busia County, to evaluate the growth and yield responses of green pepper under three row plant spacings namely: 50×40 cm, 40×40 cm and 30×40 cm during the long and short rainy seasons of 2015. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The treatment effects were measured on plant growth for 12 weeks and ripe fruit yield parameters which were later cleaned statistically analyzed. The plant spacing had significant variation in almost all the growth and yield components except the fruit length. In both seasons, the number of branches per plant, stem girth and number of fruits per plant were found to be significantly increased with the increasing of plant spacing but the plant height, number of leaves per plant, fruit breadth and yield per plant were found to be significantly increased with the decreasing plant spacing. The highest yield per plant of 555.1 g and 551.8 g were realized during the short and long rainy seasons respectively in the 40 by 40 cm spacing treatment. Considering the yield of fruits per plant, the 40 by 40 cm plant spacing appeared to be the most recommendable for the cultivation of green pepper.[4]

Response of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum) to Foliar Feeding with Micronutrients and Shoot Pruning

Introduction: An experiment was conducted during the period from October 2012 to April 2013 at Horticulture farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh to evaluate the response of bell pepper with foliar feeding with micronutrients and shoot pruning.

Methods: The experiment consisted of two levels shoot pruning viz., P0­: no shoot pruning & P1: shoot pruning and six levels of foliar applications of micronutrients as; 1. M0: control (water); 2. M1: boron (B) @ 100 ppm as H3BO3; 3. M2: zinc (Zn) @ 100 ppm as ZnSO4; 4. M3: copper (Cu) @ 100 ppm as CuSO4; 5. M4: manganese (Mn) @ 100 ppm as MnSO4 and 6. M5: mixed micronutrients @ 100 ppm each (B, Zn, Cu and Mn). The two factor experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications.

Results: In case of shoot pruning, the greatest number of marketable fruits per plant (8.70), maximum fruit setting (39.32%) and highest yield (26.60 t/ha) was obtained from shoot pruning and whereas for micronutrients, the greatest number of marketable fruits per plant (9.57), maximum fruit setting (40.53%) and highest yield (29.98 t/ha) elicited by mixed micronutrients with 100 ppm.

Conclusion: Application of shoot pruning with mixed micronutrient with 100 ppm elicited (30.43 t/ha) the highest yield compared to other treatment and seems to be the best combination for bell pepper production.

Reference

[1] Govindarajan, V.S. and Salzer, U.J., 1985. Capsicum‐production, technology, chemistry, and quality part 1: History, botany, cultivation, and primary processing. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 22(2), pp.109-176.

[2] Govindarajan, V.S. and Sathyanarayana, M.N., 1991. Capsicum—production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 29(6), pp.435-474.

[3] Govindarajan, V.S., Rajalakshmi, D., Chand, N. and Salzer, U.J., 1987. Capsicum—Production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part IV. Evaluation of quality. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 25(3), pp.185-282.

[4] Edgar, O.N., Gweyi-Onyango, J.P. and Korir, N.K., 2017. Plant row spacing effect on growth and yield of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Western Kenya. Archives of Current Research International, pp.1-9.

[5] Awalin, S., Shahjahan, M., Roy, A.C., Akter, A. and Kabir, M.H., 2017. Response of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) to foliar feeding with micronutrients and shoot pruning. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, pp.1-8.

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