The novel coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID-19). Precarious metabolic health was discovered to be the primary risk factor for the development of serious types of COVID-19. COVID-19 is thought to be dangerous due to a number of factors ranging from impaired immune system function to persistent inflammation. When considering the link between obesity and COVID-19 severity, it’s crucial to remember that obesity is a complicated condition. Obesity is being linked to COVID-19 by a growing body of evidence. Obesity is clearly linked to the high frequency, severity, and death rates of viral infections in obese patients. Because the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entrance into host cells, is highly expressed in adipose tissue, obese people are more vulnerable to COVID-19. Type-I interferon (IFN-I), which is decreased in COVID-19, is the major immunological response. As seen in the cytokine storm reported in people with serious disease, the pro-inflammatory condition associated with obesity causes an imbalance in the inflammatory response to COVID-19. Obesity is thought to be a low-grade chronic inflammation, indicating a potential for harmful immunological amplification. The impact of obesity on the immune system and possible interrelationships are discussed in this review, with a focus on the influence of dysfunctional adipose tissue on immunity in the context of COVID-19 infection. Obesity-induced immune dysfunction leads to organ harm in COVID-19 infection, impairing the patient’s ability to fight the virus, according to the investigators. When compared to lean people, obese patients spend more time in the hospital and have a more severe clinical picture. Obesity control, immunonutrition, and physical activity must all be studied further in the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Jehan Saad Alrahimi
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.