News Update on yield of soybean : Nov 2021

Putative Alleles for Increased Yield from Soybean Plant Introductions

Improving seed yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important breeding goal. The objective of this study was to evaluate two soybean PIs as sources of alleles for the enhancement of seed yield in North American cultivars. A population of 167 F₅–derived lines was developed from a cross between ‘BSR 101’ and the experimental line LG82-8379. BSR 101 has nine of 10 major ancestral lines contributing to the commercial gene pool of North America, while LG82-8379 was selected from a cross between PI 68508 and FC 04007B. The F₅–derived lines, divided into three sets based on maturity, were evaluated for 145 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker loci and for seed yield and other agronomic traits in 12 environments. Fifteen quantitative trait loci (QTL) were significantly [P < 0.05, likelihood of odds (LOD) > 2.5] associated with seed yield in at least one set with two significant across all sets. For nine of the yield QTL, the LG82-8379 alleles were associated with yield increases of 1.7 to 5.4% while the BSR 101 alleles increased yield 2.4 to 4.4% at six yield QTL. Four yield QTL were associated with significant changes in R8, eight with plant height, and three with seed protein concentration. Additional QTL were identified for R8, plant height, lodging, and seed protein and oil concentration. These results indicate that soybean PIs have the genetic potential for improving seed yield of U.S. soybean cultivars. [1]

Cultivar maturity and potential yield of soybean

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) cultivars from maturity groups 00, I, III, and V were grown in the field to evaluate the relationship between the length of total growth cycle and potential yield. Cultivars from maturity group 00 and I were grown in narrow rows (0.38 m) to obtain maximum insolation interception. The length of the vegetative growth period increased by 35 days from maturity group 00 to V. Plant size (total nodes per plant and maximum vegetative mass in g m−2) also increased with increasing maturity group. All cultivars reached maximum insolation interception soon after initial flowering. The crop growth rate of control plots (measured between growth stages R1 and R5) was not related to plant size. Shade (30 and 63%) from growth stage R1 to R7 was used to create variation in crop growth rate within a cultivar. For each cultivar, the number of seeds m−2 increased linearly with increasing crop growth rate. After adjusting for cultivar differences in individual seed growth rate, there were no cultivar differences in seeds m−2 at a constant crop growth rate. Thus, seeds m−2 was related to crop growth rate, not to the size of the plant. The maturity growth 00 cultivar tended to have a shorter seed-filling period but there were no consistent differences among the others. These data suggest that the longer vegetative growth period of later-maturing cultivars does not provide a higher yield potential and that shorter-season cultivars may have equal yield potential if exposed to a similar environment. [2]

Influence of seed ageing on growth and yield of soybean

Effect of seed ageing on stand establishment, growth and yield of three soybean varieties was studied. Treatments consisted of three varieties viz. Shohag, Bangladesh soybean 4 and BARIsoybean-5 with four levels of seed ageing viz. 20, 12, 8 and 2 months aged seed. Seed germination and field emergence percentage decreased but electrical conductivity of seed leachate increased with increasing seed age in all the soybean varieties. Irrespective of varieties, plants grown from 20 months aged seed accumulated more dry matter per plant but crop growth rate (CGR) were lower than the other ageing treatments. The highest dry matter accumulation and CGR were found in BARIsoybean-5 and lowest in Bangladesh soybean 4. Irrespective of varieties, crop grown from 2 months aged seed produced significantly the highest seed yield (1981 kg/ha) which was at par with the yield obtained from 8 months aged seed; and the lowest (811 kg/ha) was grown from 20 months aged seed. Among the varieties, significantly the highest seed yield (1615 kg/ha) was obtained from BARIsoybean-5 which was identical with that of Bangladesh soybean 4. Results further revealed that Bangladesh soybean 4 can be grown up to 12 months aged seed without significant reduction in seed yield [3]

Soybean (Glycine max L) Genotype and Environment Interaction Effect on Yield and Other Related Traits

Aims: To evaluate genetic variability of five soybean genotypes, and assess genotype × environment effect on seed yield and yield related traits.

Study Design: Split-plot, replicated three times. Genotypes were fixed effect while plots (main 60 m² and subplot 12 m²) were random effects. The sub-plot consists of 4 rows 5 m long with 60 cm and 10 cm inter and intra-row spacing.

Place and Duration: El Gantra, Range and Pasture Farm in Sennar State of the Sudan during 2009 and 2010 cropping season.

Methodology: Five soybean genotypes NA 5009 RG; TGx 1904-6F, TGx 1740-2F, TGx 1937-1F and Soja were evaluated. A strain of Rhizobium japonicum was used for inoculation at a rate of 10 g per kg of soybean seed using a sugary solution in 2009. Inoculation was not carried out due to the assumptionthat the field had the remnant of inoculum effect in 2010. All the recommended soybean agronomic practices were equally applied. Number of days to 50% flowering was recorded on plot basis when almost half of the sub-plot flowers. Ten plants were randomly selected on plot basis to quantify these traits: Plant height was measured as from ground surface to the base of meri-stem of the mother plant. Number of branches was computed as an average count of branches per plant. Leaf area was computed using Iamauti [12] empirical relationship. The first pod height was measured at full bloom. Number of seeds per pod was counted at physiological maturity of the crop. 100-seed weight was determined randomly from a seed bulk using a digital weighing machine. Seed yield was quantified after harvest and converted into kg/hectare.

Results: The effect of genotype (G), environment (E) and G × E interactions on pod number per plant; plant height, first pod height, number of branches per plant, leaf area, number of days to 50% flowering and seed yield were found significant at P=0.05. The highest mean seed yield was obtained from TGx 1937-1F (0.98 t/ha). Beside TGx 1740-2F, TGx 1904-6F and Soja were significantly higher than NA 5009 RG in all environments for seed yield. TGx 1937-1F was an intermediate maturing and best in terms of number of pods per plant, number of branches per plant, and leaf area. Correlation coefficient for seed yield showed significant association with days to 50% flowering and leaf area.

Conclusion: The best genotype for seed yield across the environments was TGx 1937-1F and TGx 1740-2F, TGx1904-6F and Soja were intermediate and NA 5009 RG was the least. Thus, partitioning G × E into adaptability and phenotypic stability will positively address the information gap on association of traits to yield. [4]

Genetic Diversity of Soybean Yield Based on Cluster and Principal Component Analyses

The objective of this study was to determine analysis of variance, descriptive statistics, cluster and principle components analysis to understand their genetic diversity for ten soybean genotypes on seed yield (ten/fed.) during 2014 and 2015 seasons. Results for analysis of variance indicated highly significant genotypes and years and significant genotypes x years interaction for seed yield. The soybean genotypes Giza 111, Giza 30 and Crawford for seed yield (ton/fed.) were produced the highest mean values. The 2014 season had greater than 2015 season for seed yield (ton/fed.) in most soybean genotypes.  Standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variation and range for seed yield (ton/fed.) has noticed considerable genetic diversity in the ten genotypes. The ten soybean genotypes based on seed yield were grouped into four clusters using cluster analysis. The first, second and third clusters comprised of two genotypes i.e., (Giza 32 and Crawford), (Giza 30 and Giza 111) and (Hybrid 129 and Hybrid 132), respectively. While, the fourth cluster consisted of four genotypes viz., Giza 21, Giza 22, Giza 35 and Clark. The second cluster had recorded highest mean seed yield, followed by the first, fourth and third clusters. The principle components analysis showed that PC1 and PC2 having eigen values highest than unity explained 82.55% of total variability among soybean genotypes attributable to seed yield and accounted with values 67.77% and 14.78%, respectively. PC1 and PC2 noticed positive association with all and most genotypes, respectively. Biplot obtained from the PC1 and PC2 almost confirmed the cluster analysis grouped. The biplot displayed positive and strong relationships between most studied genotypes. Based on the cluster and principle components analysis, the wide diversity among the studied genotypes were found, their direct use as parents in hybridization programs to maximize the use of genetic diversity and expression of heterosis and develop high yielding soybean varieties. [5]


[1] Kabelka, E.A., Diers, B.W., Fehr, W.R., LeRoy, A.R., Baianu, I.C., You, T., Neece, D.J. and Nelson, R.L., 2004. Putative alleles for increased yield from soybean plant introductions.

[2] Egli, D.B., 1993. Cultivar maturity and potential yield of soybean. Field Crops Research, 32(1-2), pp.147-158.

[3] Saha, R.R. and Sultana, W., 2008. Influence of seed ageing on growth and yield of soybean. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 37(1), pp.21-26.

[4] Ngalamu, T., Ashraf, M. and Meseka, S., 2013. Soybean (Glycine max L) genotype and environment interaction effect on yield and other related traits. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.977-987.

[5] El-Hashash, E.F., 2016. Genetic diversity of soybean yield based on cluster and principal component analyses. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, pp.1-9.

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