Households can diversify their portfolios as an alternate method to reduce income variability and ensure a minimum level of income. The study included multi-stage sampling, binary logistic regression, and a logit regression methodology. In the year 2016-17, the study was carried out in Jammu & Kashmir State (Union Territory), with a total sample size of 630 farming families selected from four agro-ecological zones. 15 farming households were taken at random from each of the designated villages, with no replacements, and only 10 farm families were kept for analysis. From the total sample size of 630, the mean age of farming families in the sub-tropical, intermediate, temperature, and cold-arid zones was 53, 50, 47, and 51 years, respectively, and the educational level of middle pass was 24.40 percent. The majority of households (78.40%) did not diversify their off-farm activities, while the very few households (1.90%) had a high level of income diversification from off-farm activities. The average gross revenue from on-farm operations was Rs. 77,623 per year, whereas the average gross income from off-farm activities was Rs. 1,17,643 per year. The push factors that drove agricultural family families to diversify into other activities were education, family size, and fragmented land holdings. According to the study, there is a need to promote education and skill development training among farm family families, as this will undoubtedly improve their ability to diversify their various sources of income.
MS Swaminathan, School of Agriculture, Shoolini University, India.
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