News Update on Aerobiology : Dec 2021
Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust
Desert winds aerosolize several billion tons of soil-derived dust each year, including concentrated seasonal pulses from Africa and Asia. These transoceanic and transcontinental dust events inject a large pulse of microorganisms and pollen into the atmosphere and could therefore have a role in transporting pathogens or expanding the biogeographical range of some organisms by facilitating long-distance dispersal events. As we discuss here, whether such dispersal events are occurring is only now beginning to be investigated. Huge dust events create an atmospheric bridge over land and sea, and the microbiota contained within them could impact downwind ecosystems. Such dispersal is of interest because of the possible health effects of allergens and pathogens that might be carried with the dust. 
The field of extramural aerobiology is concerned with the distribution of living organisms by the exterior atmosphere and with some of the consequences of this distribution. It includes within its sphere of interest a study of the dispersion of insect populations, fungus spores, bacteria, viruses, molds, and pollens—in fact, all forms of life, both plant and animal, that are borne aloft and transported wholly or in large part by the atmosphere. 
Aerobiology, in the strict sense, is the science which is studying the transportation of biological particles through the air. This process includes the release, the staying airborne, and deposition of particles of biological origin. Until recently, most of the allergological research has been done on the processes before and after the strict aerobiological pathway. The allergological studies were primarily dealing with the allergenic properties of the particles, irrespective of their aerobiological characteristics. Also, many studies have been done about the effects of allergens in sensitized people, after deposition in the respiratory organs. But for a more complete knowledge of the allergic process, allergological aerobiology in the strict sense is indispensable. The understanding of symptoms of respiratory allergy requires knowledge of the aerodynamic properties of airborne allergen carrying particles. 
Aeromycoflora of Animal Rearing Houses of Bangalore, India
The present study was carried out to investigate the indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in the animal rearing houses viz., rabbit house, cow shed, poultry farm and swine house in Hessaraghatta village, Bangalore city was carried out by Andersen two stage sampler using an Malt Extract Agar (MEA) media were collected fortnightly from January 2011 to December 2011. In our study, fungal spores are ubiquitous and quite dominant in the indoors as against the outdoor environments, a total of 97335.13 CFU/m3 was observed from indoor compared to outdoor 25492.11 CFU/m3 airborne fungi recorded. The most common fungal spores in indoor environment were Cladosporium herbarum, Cladosporium sp., C. macrocarpum, C. cladosporioides, Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus niger and Penicillium species, Whereas in outdoor Alternaria sp., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium herbarum, Cladosporium sp., C. macrocarpum, C. cladosporioides and Fusarium species were observed. The present study helped in preparation of fungal calendars for the region, which may useful for physician to identify the cause of fungal spores related problem affecting human health of animal rearing house workers. 
Aerosols in Dental Practice- A Neglected Infectious Vector
An aerosol is a suspension of solid or liquid particles in air or other gaseous environment. Sources of bacterial aerosols exist within and outside the dental clinic. The generation of bacterial aerosols and splatters appears to be highest during dental procedures. The use of rotary dental and surgical instruments and air-water syringes generates visible infectious spray, that enclose large-particle spatter of water, saliva, microorganisms, blood, and other debris. Several infectious diseases could be transmitted to staff and patients by airborne bacterial and other contaminants in the dental clinic. The vigilant use of barriers along with appropriate immunizations procedures could safe guard the dental fraternity from the ill-effects of the aerosols. 
 Kellogg, C.A. and Griffin, D.W., 2006. Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust. Trends in ecology & evolution, 21(11), pp.638-644.
 Jacobs, W.C., 1951. Aerobiology. In Compendium of Meteorology (pp. 1103-1111). American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA.
 Spieksma, F.T.M., 1992. Allergological aerobiology. Aerobiologia, 8(1), pp.5-8.
 Pavan, R., 2015. Aeromycoflora of Animal Rearing Houses of Bangalore, India. Microbiology Research Journal International, pp.395-402.
 Raghunath, N., Meenakshi, S., Sreeshyla, H.S. and Priyanka, N., 2016. Aerosols in dental practice-A neglected infectious vector. Microbiology Research Journal International, pp.1-8.