The use of phytogenics or plant extracts as a suitable alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters has produced some intriguing results, with multiple primary data reports clarifying their favourable effects. Most chicken farmers are concerned about gastrointestinal health and minimising mortality in the absence of in-feed antibiotics. As a result, the antibacterial power of phytochemicals derived from medicinal plants, as well as their ability to preserve health in poultry birds by reducing subclinical bacteria-induced zoonotic enteropathogenic diseases, cannot be overstated. The leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) were harvested fresh and oven dried to a moisture level of 15%. The phytochemical analysis of their methanol extract generated by cold maceration was performed using the appropriate procedure for each phytochemical identified. Each extract was subjected to a separate qualitative and quantitative examination. Saponins and terpenoids were extensively found (+++) in V. amygdalina and somewhat detected (+) in A. indica, according to qualitative analysis. Both plants had high levels of phenolic compounds (+++), but only A. indica had high levels of tannins. Flavonoids were found in both plants (++). V. amygdalina had a relatively high concentration of total phenolic content and overall flavonoid content, according to quantitative study. V. amygdalina had a total phenolic content of 44.76 mg Gallic acid equivalent / g of extract and 57.21 mg Rutin equivalent / g of extract (total flavonoid content), while A. indica had a total phenolic content of 25.77 mg Gallic acid equivalent / g of extract (total flavonoid content) and 24.45 mg Rutin equivalent /g of extract (total flavonoi Both plants have the potential to regulate the gut bacteria population towards helpful bacteria (Lactobacillus) rather than pathogenic bacteria, according to in vivo primary research (Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli). Broiler experiments with aqueous extracts of bitter leaf and neem leaf elucidated the antibacterial growth promoter potential of their phytochemicals in vitro and in vivo.
Ruth, T. S. Ofongo,
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
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