Social entrepreneurship: A critical review of the concept
This paper undertakes an analytical, critical and synthetic examination of “social entrepreneurship” in its common use, considering both the “social” and the “entrepreneurship” elements in the concept. On both points, there is a range of use with significant differences marked by such things as the prominence of social goals and what are thought of as the salient features of entrepreneurship. The paper concludes with the proposal of a suitably flexible explication of the concept: social entrepreneurship is exercised where some person or persons (1) aim either exclusively or in some prominent way to create social value of some kind, and pursue that goal through some combination of (2) recognizing and exploiting opportunities to create this value, (3) employing innovation, (4) tolerating risk and (5) declining to accept limitations in available resources.
Social entrepreneurship: towards conceptualization
The marketing in strategy dialogue and the emerging marketing/entrepreneurship interface paradigm stress the need for marketers to research entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneur-ship, the entrepreneurship leading to the establishment of new social enterprises and the continued innovation in existing ones, is much discussed but little understood and given the increasing importance of such organisations should be addressed. This paper conceptualises social entrepreneurship as a multidimensional construct involving the expression of entrepreneurially virtuous behaviour to achieve the social mission, a coherent unity of purpose and action in the face of moral complexity, the ability to recognise social value-creating opportunities and key decision-making characteristics of innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking. The paper discusses implications for policy and practice and concludes with a consideration of theoretical issues and directions for future research. Copyright © 2003 Henry Stewart Publications.
Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model
Social entrepreneurship is an emerging area of investigation within the entrepreneurship and not-for-profit marketing literatures. A review of the literature emerging from a number of domains reveals that it is fragmented and that there is no coherent theoretical framework. In particular, current conceptualizations of social entrepreneurship fail to adequately consider the unique characteristics of social entrepreneurs and the context within which they must operate. Using grounded theory method and drawing on nine in-depth case studies of social entrepreneurial not-for-profit organizations, this paper addresses this research gap and develops a bounded multidimensional model of social entrepreneurship. Implications for social entrepreneurship theory, management practice, and policy directions are discussed.
To be or Not to be: Social Entrepreneurship in Kashmir
Lack of opportunities, and a limited availability of employment in the politically unstable valley of Jammu and Kashmir, in India, has permeated each section of the society, creating new problems for the ethnic minority of Kashmiris in all spheres of their lives from healthcare, to drug addiction. A novel approach is presented, where the control of economic destiny is shaped by promoting the entrepreneurial spirit of the people, so that their dependence on public sector jobs is decreased. Social entrepreneurship, in addition to creating economic benefits for the general populace of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), would be an ideal solution for a society which has been at constant war with itself, both metaphorically and literally. In this policy article, in addition to literature review, we discuss the potential of Social Business in J&K, and present examples of market opportunities which, if explored and invested in properly, can predict a stable and self-sufficient future for Kashmir.
Are New Generation of Students of Healthcare Management Focused on Social Entrepreneurship? A Field Study
This study aims to analyse students’ social entrepreneurship profiles and to compare them in their levels of social entrepreneurship with students having no bias towards social entrepreneurship. Social Entrepreneurship Level Scale” was employed to attain the purpose. The scale, which is used to describe students’ social entrepreneurship profiles, is composed of such dimensions as personal and social properties, innovativeness, and managerial qualities. A questionnaire was administered to the undergraduate students of healthcare management department of a state university in Turkey within the scope of the study. Independent samples t-test enabling researchers to make inter-group comparisons in the analysis of the data obtained and one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) were used in the analysis of the data. It was found in consequence that the participants’ level of social entrepreneurship was 3.91 on average. Following the hypotheses made, it was found that there were no significant differences between students’ perceptions of social entrepreneurship according to age, gender, grade levels, number of brothers and sisters, mother’s occupation and father’s occupation.
 Peredo, A.M. and McLean, M., 2006. Social entrepreneurship: A critical review of the concept. Journal of world business, 41(1), pp.56-65.
 Sullivan Mort, G., Weerawardena, J. and Carnegie, K., 2003. Social entrepreneurship: Towards conceptualisation. International journal of nonprofit and voluntary sector marketing, 8(1), pp.76-88.
 Weerawardena, J. and Mort, G.S., 2006. Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model. Journal of world business, 41(1), pp.21-35.
 Sofi, J.I., Nabi, J. and Authoy, F.N., 2016. To be or Not to be: Social Entrepreneurship in Kashmir. Advances in Research, pp.1-12.
 Ekiyor, A. and Bolat, Y., 2017. Are new generation of students of healthcare management focused on social entrepreneurship? A field study. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, pp.1-11.