Sustainable Tourism Development: A Critique
Sustainable tourism has become an increasingly popular field of research since the late 1980s. However, the sustainable tourism debate is patchy, disjointed and often flawed with false assumptions and arguments. This paper is a brief critique of some of the weaknesses in the sustainable tourism literature. In particular, it explores six issues that are often overlooked but must be addressed in research: the role of tourism demand, the nature of tourism resources, the imperative of intra-generational equity, the role of tourism in promoting sociocultural progress, the measurement of sustainability, and forms of sustainable development. Finally, it is argued that in order to transform research on sustainable tourism to a more scientific level, a systems perspective and an interdisciplinary approach are indispensable. 
Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm
Despite owing its origins to the general concept of sustainable development, the subject of sustainable tourism appears to have evolved largely in isolation from the continuing debate on the meaning of the former. This paper argues that such isolation has resulted in the emergence of an overly simplistic and inflexible paradigm of sustainable tourism which fails to account for specific circumstances. It is suggested that the concept of sustainable tourism be redefined in terms of an over-arching paradigm which incorporates a range of approaches to the tourism/environment system within destination areas. These approaches are outlined for a variety of abstract situations with the aim of demonstrating the legitimacy of different perceptions of sustainable tourism. 
A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism
Based on an extensive literature review, this paper proposes a framework of approaches to sustainable tourism. The framework is composed of four positions, chronologically sequenced according to the dominant understanding of sustainable tourism as a possession or goal. The positions are those of polar opposites, continuum, movement and convergence. The framework offers insights into the development of the sustainable tourism concept and enables identification of an author’s approach to the concept. 
Sustainable Tourism Impacts in the City of Madaba, Jordan
This paper assessed the indicators that presumably impact sustainable tourism in the region of Madaba, one of the most attractive sites in the Middle of Jordan. The indicators were classified into 5 subgroups and include managerial, economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts. The methods of the study relied on structured questionnaires that were distributed over stakeholder and locals. The results show that the carrying capacity at the attraction sites is very high (high tourist flow in a small area). The wastewater, water and energy management is severely impacted as well as transportation. The social impact is also very high and it is substantially contested by the inelastic cultural norms and tradition especially when tackling women inequality and empowerment. 
Model of Sustainable Tourism Development Strategy of the Thousand Islands Tourism Area – Jakarta
Aims/objective: To design a model of sustainable tourism development strategy in small islands tourism areas in developing countries so that the development of tourism can eliminate environmental problems that endanger the sustainability of tourism resources and threats to the economic welfare of local communities
Design: This paper utilizes strategic management concepts through an analytical framework formulation approach which consists of SWOT analysis, alternative strategy, quantitative strategic planning matrix and choice of sustainable tourism development strategy and ends with the modeling of strategy development of sustainable tourism
Methodology: According to the data and analysis, this approach is a qualitative approach, utilizing the Miles and Huberman model analytics. The technique of taking the number of participants is a snowball sampling
Results: This paper introduces the concept of a strategic model of sustainable tourism development that is easier to apply to small islands surveys so that it will be useful for all stakeholders in different areas of small islands conservation.
 Liu, Z., 2003. Sustainable tourism development: A critique. Journal of sustainable tourism, 11(6), pp.459-475.
 Hunter, C., 1997. Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Annals of tourism research, 24(4), pp.850-867.
 Clarke, J., 1997. A framework of approaches to sustainable tourism. Journal of sustainable tourism, 5(3), pp.224-233.
 Jamhawi, M.M., Al-Shorman, A., Roa’a, J.Z. and Hajahjah, Z.A., 2016. Sustainable tourism impacts in the City of Madaba, Jordan. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, pp.1-10.
 Sulistyadi, Y., Eddyono, F. and Hasibuan, B., 2017. Model of sustainable tourism development strategy of the Thousand Islands Tourism Area–Jakarta. Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, pp.1-17.