Catalytic Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate to Produce Fatty Acid Methyl Ester

The esterification process produces biodiesel, commonly known as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), a form of industrial and transportation fuel. In this work, a chromium-titanium mixed oxides catalyst generated by the sol-gel technique was used to catalyse the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to yield FAME. A batch reactor was used to carry out the esterification procedure. The researchers wanted to see how reaction temperature, methanol to PFAD molar ratio, reaction duration, and catalyst reusability affected PFAD esterification. With a reaction temperature of 160°C, a methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 3:1, and a reaction period of 3 hours, the highest FAME content of 89 percent was produced. In the intervals between the first and third runs, With a 20% performance drop, the catalyst can be reused three times. The findings showed that Cr-Ti mixed oxides might be employed as a heterogeneous catalyst in the esterification of PFAD feedstock with a high acid value.

Author(s) Details:

W. Z. Wan Kamis,
Centre for Chemical Engineering Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, Permatang Pauh Campus, 13500 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

W. N. Azuwar,
Centre for Chemical Engineering Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, Permatang Pauh Campus, 13500 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

N. A. Ali Bashah,
Centre for Chemical Engineering Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, Permatang Pauh Campus, 13500 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

N. Isa,
Centre for Chemical Engineering Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, Permatang Pauh Campus, 13500 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

S. S. A. Syed-Hassan,
School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Please see the link here: https://stm.bookpi.org/NTPSR-V4/article/view/6935

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