Essential Oils in Limiting the Development of Various Origins of Phytopathogenic Fusarium Isolates from Wheat Kernels

The study’s objective was to compare the fungistatic activity of eight commercial essential oils (EsOs) with four species of Fusarium from the Polish population (F. avenaceum FAPL, F. culmorum FCPL, F. graminearum FGPL, and F. oxysporum FOPL), and five from the German population. The eight EsOs were grapefruit, lemongrass, tea tree (TTO), thyme, verbena, ca (F. culmorum FC1D, F. culmorum FC2D, F. graminearum FG1D, F. graminearum FG2D and F. poae FP0D). EsO has also been identified as a possible biofungicide. Phytopathogenic fungi isolated from wheat kernels with an infection. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer was used to validate the species identification of Fusarium isolates. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of the EsO. The fungicidal activity of EsO (at dosages of 0.025, 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 percent) against Fusarium spp. was examined using the disc plate technique, and zones of growth inhibition were determined. Based on the findings provided as a growth rate index, it was discovered that essential oils (as possible biofungicides) were able to successfully restrict the growth of Fusarium spp. In general, German isolates of Fusarium were more susceptible than Polish ones. Different Fusarium species were more or less susceptible than others. Regardless of the origin of the isolate, they are most vulnerable to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. avenaceum, and F. oxysporum in that order. Thymol chemotype oil demonstrated the most potent fungicidal effect, comparable to that of Funaben T. (regardless of the concentration). Citral oils from lemongrass and Litsea cubeba performed similarly, but at concentrations higher than 0.025 percent. The least efficient oils were grapefruit and garlic.

Author(s) Details:

Teresa Krzysko-Lupicka,
Institute of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, University of Opole, Kominka 6/6A, 45-035 Opole, Poland.

Monika Sporek,
Institute of Biology, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, University of Opole, Oleska 22, 45-052 Opole, Poland.

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