Genetic and Developmental Fortification of Sweet Corn b-carotene through Crosses with Field Corn

This study’s main objective is to use field corn genes to enhance sweet corn’s overall quality, notably its -carotene content. One of the most important strategies for preventing or limiting nutrient shortages is biofortification, which entails growing plants with higher nutritional content. The genotypes of the seven sweet corn, eight field corn, and three F1 field-sweet corn crosses investigated showed substantial differences in kernels and flour-Hunter b*values. In the cross between Inbred 82 (white field corn “P12”) and Golden Bantam cv. (white sweet corn “P19”) and Inbred 2605-1288Y (yellow field corn “P16”), the flour yellowness index of the F1 crosses was between the mid-parent and the lower parent, but greater than the better-parent (yellow sweet corn “P20”).There was a large amount of carotenoid variability among genotypes and crosses, according to HPLC examination of zeaxanthin, -cryptoxanthin, -carotene, and -carotene amounts. Results from HPLC showed that – and -carotene levels varied considerably amongst F1 field-sweet corn crosses. While F1 of P16 x P19 cross and P12 x P9 cross acquired significantly more – and -carotene, F1 of P12 x P20 cross gathered the most zeaxanthin and -cryptoxanthin. Data from the parents, F1, F2, and backcross populations in the P16 x P19 cross and P12 x P20 cross were used to generate the yellowness index. The yellowness index was significantly influenced by both additive and non-additive gene effects, with the non-additive gene exerting a greater dominating influence. This characteristic was somewhat dominantly acquired from the lower parent. Its heritability estimates were, both broadly and specifically, considered to be, rather high. Although polymorphisms in lycopene epsilon cyclase (lcyE), which is assumed to control the proportion of carotenes, indicated significant differences in either – or -branch carotenoids among genotypes and crosses, there was no obvious association between grain colour and -carotene. Two F1 field-sweet corn hybrids, P12 x P9 and P16 x P19, with high -carotene contents displayed lcyE amplification. By crossing sweet corn with field corn, the flavour can be improved. Functional variation of LcyE among genotypes had substantial outcomes in addition to -carotene content. Testing revealed that field corn inbreds that were able to amplify LcyE had significant amounts of -carotene compared to sweet corn genotypes that were unable to do so. The outcomes represent an important advancement in the breeding of sweet maize that is both adaptable and nourishing.

Author(s) Details:

Haitham E. M. Zaki,
Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, El-Minia 61517, Egypt and  Applied Biotechnology Department, University of Technology and Applied Sciences-Sur, 411, Sur, Sultanate of Oman.

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Keywords: Zea mays var. rugosa, field-sweet corn crosses, β-carotene content, lycopene epsilon cyclase (lcyE).

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