Some Typical Heavy Metal Toxicity and Their Effects on Rice, Vegetables, Sorghum and Super Shrimp

The authors’ outcomes from using the field assessment, investigation, compensating using the examination pilot approach, and field experimentation are as follows: wastewater from southern Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) has the potential to contaminate rice field soil with hazardous heavy metals. Cd levels range from 4.7 to 10.3 ppm, exceeding the acceptable guideline in certain areas by two to three times. Three different types of soil—the yellow-red allusion, the allusion-acid sulphate soil, and the genuine acid sulphate soil—have greater concentrations of Cd. When the amount of Cd in the soil exceeds 25 ppm, it has an impact on the rice production, field components, and agro-characteristics. Different rice types have, nevertheless, had an impact on variations in the rice’s quality.

Studies conducted in the field, in greenhouses, and in laboratories have revealed that there are differences in the ways that heavy metals accumulate and have an impact on their accumulation in leaves, roots, and stems. Vegetables are not affected by Cd2+ at 1.0 ppm, but are limited at 100 ppm. 0.1 ppm of Cd2+ has a stimulating impact on rice development, whereas 30 ppm of Cd2+ will have a substantial effect. Rice will be harmed by Hg+ at 100 ppm, while cabbage is stimulated by Hg2+ at 0.1 ppm and rice is stimulated by Hg+ at 10 ppm. The results of the analysis indicate that the grey soil in Cu Chi District, Ho Chi Minh City, and the new alluvial soil in Go Cong District, Tien Giang Province, are both safe and do not contain significant amounts of heavy metals.

Additionally, Ho Chi Minh City’s southern paddy soils region is part of the Sai Gon-Dong Nai river watershed’s last downstream region before it empties into the sea. It was contaminated by industrial, household, and municipal waste water drainage canal sediments from HCMC and nearby regions. Additionally, it has been determined that this area may be cadmium-contaminated (Cd). For the growth of rice production for environmental issue regions and food safety measures, the research Cd accumulated in portions of rice was crucial. The topic examined the Cd accumulation of two rice cultivars, one of which was a high-yielding rice variety and the other was a traditional rice variety (Mahsuri) (VND95-20). Cd was injected into pots of experimental soils at nine different amounts, ranging from 0 to 40 mg Cd kg-1 (cry weight). Every marijuana trial was conducted on a field in southern HCMC. The outcome demonstrated the soil’s Cd content. The ability of rice plants to accumulate Cd depends on each component of the grain, the variety, and the experimental conditions; it is distributed in brown rice in a nearly equivalent ratio of 1000:100:1 in the roots, straws, and grain, and brown rice’s Cd accumulation positively correlates with soil Cd concentration. In comparison to VND95-20 high-yielding variety, Cd accumulated ability in brown rice of Mahsuri traditional rice variety is significantly lower. In the other, the influence of heavy metal toxicity on shrimp demonstrates that: Heavy metals stand out among the toxic variables that have an impact on living organisms both directly and indirectly. It has lately been cautioned that heavy metal poisoning of natural water sources might result in a break of mass shrimp deaths in ponds where shrimp are raised. This study sought to determine the extent to which heavy metal pollution of the water environment might be detrimental to Penaeus monodon plant development. (1) The 50 percent lethal concentration (LC50-96h) of As3+ for the Penaeus monodon variety is 51.29 g/l; the maximum allowed concentration of arsenic in aquaculture water, according per Vietnamese rules, is 10.00 g/l. (2) The cadmium concentration limit in aquaculture water according to Vietnamese norms is 5.00 g/l, but the 50% lethal concentration (LC50-96h) of Cd2+ for Penaeus monodon seed is 23.39 g/l. (3) The maximum copper concentration allowed by Vietnamese rules in aquaculture water is 10.00 g/l; the 50% lethal concentration (LC50-96h) of Cu2+ for Penaeus monodon variety is 181.97 g/L. (4) The limit chromium content of Vietnamese standards in aquaculture water is 100.00 g/l; the 50% lethal concentration (LC50-96h) of Cr3+ for Penaeus monodon variety is 218.78 g/l. (5)The limit iron content of Vietnamese standards in aquaculture water is 100.00 g/l; the 50% lethal concentration (LC50-96h) of Fe3+ for Penaeus monodon variety is 295.12 g/l. (6) The maximum mercury content allowed by Vietnamese rules in aquaculture water is 5.0 g/l; the 50% lethal concentration (LC50-96h) of Hg+ for Penaeus monodon variety is 19.5 g/l. And, (7) For the Penaeus monodon species, the 50% lethal concentration (LC50-96h) of Pb2+ is 190.55 g/l; the sole restriction for TCVN in aquaculture water is 10.00 g/l. (8) The zinc content in aquaculture water in Vietnam is 10.00 g/l, whereas the 50 percent lethal concentration (LC50-96h) for the Penaeus monodon variety is 31.63 g/l. At the same time, sorghum and rice have been significantly impacted by heavy metals, generally Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the presence of Al3+ and SO42-: One with rice: At 600 ppm in water, Fe2+ begins to negatively impact the environment. However, Fe2+ can occasionally be present in soil at levels equal to or more than 1,000 ppm without significantly harming plants. Al 3+ in solution = 135 ppm in particular starts to have an impact. Actually = 800pm-900ppm in soil to be poisonous Sorghum is less hazardous than rice at levels of Al3+ 792 ppm, Fe3+ 2,500 ppm, and SO42- 0.38 %. 2. The extent of the plant’s poisonous buildup. strongly depends on the traits of the plant species and the quantity of harmful chemicals in the soil: Al3+ concentrations in plants range from 600 to 960 ppm, with roots containing 1-3 times more Al3+ than leaves. Fe levels in plants range from 600 to 2,300 ppm, with roots having 2-3 times the levels of leaves. In the roots, SO42- can build up between 0.1 and 1.5 percent, which is twice as much as in the leaves. Al3+ and Fe have a strong and proportionate toxicological association in plants. 3- Characteristics of toxicity-resistant types include: a— High capacity to collect P, Al3+, and Fe. The capacity to retain hazardous chemicals in the roots is caused by the correlation of toxic accumulation in the soil, the positive correlation in the roots, and the less positive correlation in the leaves and stems. When compared to varieties with poor alum tolerance, the ability to accumulate toxic substances in roots is much higher than in leaves (Al3+ roots/stems: 4 times, Fe greater than 2.5 times), and functional leaves (active leaves) have the capacity to withstand the penetration of toxins in toxic tolerant varieties thanks to peroxidase enzyme activity.

Author(s) Details:

Ba Le Huy
Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry (HUFI), Vietnam.

Hoan Nguyen Xuan
Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry (HUFI), Vietnam.

Phong Nguyen Tan
Faculty of Environment & Biotechnology, Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry, Vietnam.

Dung Luu Quoc
North Oil Company, Qatar.

Thanh Le Minh
Faculty of Biotechnology & Environment, Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry, Vietnam.

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Keyword: Toxic accumulation, brown rice, cadmium (Cd), contamination, paddy soil, VND 95-20 and Mashuri rice varieties, rice grain, Cd-heavy metal toxic, Accumulation in rice plant and grain, Cd from soil-water to rice, Effect on rice Plant, Shrimp and vegetable of Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Fe, LC50 , LE50 , Heavy Metal toxicology (Pb2+, Cd2+, As2+, Fe2+, Fe3+ , Hg2+), rice plant, broccoli (vegetable), Sorghum, Acid sulfate soil, Grey soil, New alluvion soil, Pool  Shrimp feeding Water, Regression equation of toxicity, Shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

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