The Effects of the Different Cooling Rates of the Crust upon the Geological Activities and the Magnetic Field of Earth as Well as the Diverse Levels of the Water of the Seas and Oceans

Investigating the physical properties of materials in order to ascertain the geological processes’ energy sources.

Understanding the underlying reasons of geological activity can help you identify its energy sources, which will ultimately reveal the potential energies of materials throughout their phase transitions.

Methods: Gathering information about these geological activities for their geographical regions, dates, environmental conditions on or below the surface, and determining the effects of these circumstances on the physical characteristics of these materials. In the different conditions, also determining the effects of their phase transformations in changing the volumes and physical characteristics to determine the consequences of these phase transformations. Results: The materials of the Earth, including sand, sandstone, and granite rocks, are composed of silicate (SiO3) in a variety of forms and ratios. This substance, like other substances, changes in its physical properties in response to the temperature and pressure applied in its surrounding environment, while some additional effects, such as the presence of minerals in the rocks’ composition, could add additional characteristics. explore the later stages of Earth’s creation with an emphasis on the pace of cooling of the crust, where variations in the temperatures on the crust are caused by variances in their distance from the equator, which, over millions of years of Earth’s formation, estimated to be 4.54 billion years old, will have a significant impact on the thickness of the crust and the layers beneath, as well as the effects of the contractions of these materials in their spherical shape to generate forces upon the spherical zone accessible for exploration. which, among other things, have influences upon different cooling rates and also due to exposure to the type of material it covers, whether it is water or air, and these tiny differences will have a which revealed the various forms of surface-covering substance, whether water or air, led to the creation of various rates The thickness of the Earth’s crust varies depending on where on the planet lava is frozen. In relatively cold regions, freezing lava near the surface causes the crust to become thicker. At the same time, freezing and cooling of these layers causes the volume of these materials to contract, creating significant pressure on (the lithosphere, for example). Asthenosphere and Mantle) pushing the Lava to the surface through the boundaries of tectonic plates to appear as volcanic eruptions, where Basalt may reach temperatures of around 1200°C, rocks in the area could reach temperatures of up to 2,000°C. The magnetic properties of iron in these regions reach the limits of transitions between the state of the nonmagnetic and the magnetic properties of iron due to cooling these layers to the limits below Curie temperature, which is what causes activation of the magnetic properties of iron in those layers. These regions include the Arctic and Antarctic as well as some cold regions in the bottom of the oceans. where the Earth’s magnetic field weakens noticeably or even when the magnetic North Pole moves quickly from Canada to Siberia. The impact of the Earth’s gravitational pull on the massive tectonic plate masses, the impact of the centrifugal force generated at various latitudes on the Earth, and the heterogeneous distribution of material on the surface of the Earth ultimately serve as the primary sources of energy supplies that generously support geological activities and result in different ocean water levels in some regions than in other regions of the same ocean.

Author(s) Details:

Armen Ohan,
Research Fellow, Materials Science and Physics, Iraq.

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Keywords: Diverse cooling rates of the crust, geological activities, thermal expansion for materials, volcanic eruptions, anomalies of magnetic field of the earth, heterogeneous distribution of the material on the surface of the earth.

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