Radioprotective effects of Histamine H2 Receptor Antagonists on Gamma Rays Induced Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

The purpose of the current study is to investigate the radioprotective effects of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on gamma rays generated clastogenic effects on human peripheral blood cells in vitro. This is done utilising metaphase chromosome for chromosomal aberration and micronuclei analyses. In the clinic, histamine H2 receptor antagonists are used to treat peptic ulcers. Using in vitro metaphase analysis and micronucleus tests, the effects of famotidine and ranitidine on 60Cobalt gamma-ray induced clastogenic effects were examined. Heparinized whole blood from six healthy subjects was donated, and 3Gy of gamma radiation was then applied. Famotidine and ranitidine on gamma-ray induced chromosomal aberration and Micronuclei in vitro in human cells of six donors are examined in detail in the current experiment to evaluate the radioprotective effects of these drugs. Aqueous solutions of ranitidine (500 g/ml) and famotidine (150 g/ml) were introduced to lymphocyte cultures at 0 and 24 hours after they had been started. For chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus analyses, cultures were taken and processed after 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Cultures treated with Famotidine & Ranitidine separately demonstrated a substantial reduction (p 0.0001) in the frequency of chromosomal aberration at 0h and 24h following 3Gy gamma irradiation. Famotidine caused dicentrics to be inhibited by 60.91 percent and 56.42 percent at 0h and 24h, respectively, whereas ranitidine caused dicentrics to be inhibited by 52.11 percent and 43.54 percent and overall aberrations to be inhibited by 53.06 percent and 46.66 percent at 0h and 24h. Famotidine therapy was used to significantly reduce the frequency of micronuclei following 3Gy of gamma radiation, which resulted in inhibition of 48.83 percent (p 0.0001) at 0hr and 5.02 percent (p 0.016) after 24h. The decrease in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes treated with ranitidine and famotidine at 0 and 24 hours following gamma radiation (3Gy) suggests that drugs may lessen the clastogenic effects of radiation via radical scavenging mechanism, with famotidine being more effective than the ranitidine – histamine H2 receptor antagonists studied. On exposure to gamma radiation, the histamine H2 receptor antagonists ranitidine and famotidine were found to have radioprotective properties.

Author(s) Details:

Narinder Kumar Sharma,
Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Sciences Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.

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Keywords: Ionizing radiation, radioprotection, chromosomal aberration, cytochalasin-B blocked micronuclei, histamine H2 receptor antagonist, famotidine, ranitidine, human lymphocytes

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