Indium has the atomic number 49 and is found in group 13 of the periodic table of elements. Indium is a chemical element that belongs to the post-transition metals group. Indium has a silvery-white appearance, is light, and has a high malleability. While indium is a relatively rare element, it is used in a variety of industries around the world. Indium was discovered in 1863 by German metallurgists. However, it wasn’t until the early 1990s that scientists working in the area of synthetic organic chemistry attempted serious research into the functions of indium and indium-related reagents. Many recent studies focusing on indium or indium-related reagents have resulted in important advances in synthetic organic chemistry. A growing number of useful chemical transformations involving indium or indium-related reagents have been discovered and published. Chemical transformations of reactive functional groups are crucial, particularly for the effective implementation of a series of multistep chemical schemes. A number of strategic reaction methodologies, including those involving indium or indium-related reagents, have been developed for this purpose. Indium metal has been found to be useful for protecting and deprotecting functional groups, and trivalent indium Lewis acids have been found to be useful in a wide range of chemical transformations. This chapter describes an effective oxone-mediated esterification of aldehydes using indium(III) triflate, a Lewis acid with three valences. Aromatic and heterocyclic aldehydes are the most commonly esterified. The findings demonstrate the efficacy of this esterification process and point to the potential for further production of these reagents in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.
Author (s) Details
Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Japan.
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