Latest Research In Acid Rain

Research 1

Impact of Simulated Acid Rain on the Growth, Yield and Plant Component of Abelmoschus caillei

Objective: Forests worldwide are experiencing die-offs on an unprecedented scale. So too is the endangered Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana. Just as the global toxicity from acid rain was recognized and abatement measures taken, a new undisclosed source of atmospheric toxins from geoengineering rapidly escalated to near-global scale.  Published forensic evidence is consistent with coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste-product of coal-burning, being the main particulate used for geoengineering. The objective of this paper is to disclose unrecognized primary factors arising from geoengineering which underlie the demise of Torrey Pines and global forest die-offs.

Methods: Snow and fog water samples collected after aerial spraying were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and interpreted in light of extensive field observations.

Results: Atmospheric moisture extracts many elements in water-soluble form from aerosolized CFA, including aluminum, which is hazardous to many biota, especially trees. Needles and leaves trap toxin-laden atmospheric moisture, and concentrate it by evaporation. Additionally, toxin-concentrate evaporates on needles and leaves, adversely affecting respiration. Eventually, the re-solubilized toxin-concentrate falls to the ground and enters the root system. This is one of the primary factors which underlie the demise of Torrey Pines and forest die-offs worldwide. Another primary factor is enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation, which is caused, we posit, in part by disruption of atmospheric ozone by aerosolized CFA, which contains ozone-killing chlorine in variable amounts ranging as high as 25,000 µg/g. Together, these primary debilitating factors weaken trees’ natural defenses and make them vulnerable to insects, such as bark beetles, fungal infections, and other biotic factors.

Conclusion: We disclose a natural mechanism whereby trees’ needles and leaves concentrate toxins extracted by moisture from aerosolized coal fly ash used for intentional, man-made weather and climate change. This form of deliberate air pollution must be halted to preserve Earth’s forests.

Research 2

Physiological and Morphological Responses of Amaranthus hybridus L. (Green) to Simulated Nitric and Sulphuric Acid Rain

Aims: To determine the physiological and morphological responses of Amaranthus hybridus leaf area, shoot height, stem girth, leaf number, petiole length, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) of leaf, shoot and root, relative growth rate (RGR) and chlorophyll (chl.) content to simulated nitric and sulphuric acid rain.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Botany, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria, between February and April, 2016.

Methodology: Thirty five poly bags were used. Simulated nitric and sulphuric acid rain (SNAR and SSAR) of pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and a control pH of 6.0 were separately prepared and sprayed every two days. The research was carried out in a greenhouse under controlled conditions.

Results: Results showed highest decreases at pH 2.0 and lowest decreases at pH 4.0 in all the physiological parameters studied. Highest decreases are depicted by lowest measured values while lowest decreases by highest values in all measured parameters as affected by SNAR and SSAR. Acid rain treated plants showed necrosis, chlorosis and leaf deformation. Chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll of acid rains treated plants revealed a trend of decrease in content with increasing period of development. Mean values for leaf area response to simulated HNO3 and H2SO4 acid rains of pH 2.0, pH 3.0 and pH 4.0 at 4 weeks period of development were 14.60±0.33d, 17.50±0.47d, 18.80±0.11d and 14.94±0.23d 17.70±0.20d, 17.92±0.28d as against control value of 22.62±0.26d cm2. Mean values for shoot height response to acid rains had values of 16.48±0.59d, 19.65±0.66d, 20.46±0.88d, 15.82±0.59d and 18.27±0.12d, 19.74±0.17d and 24.48±0.23d cm. Mean values for chl. a, b and total chl. at 28 days for SNAR and SSAR pH 2.0 and pH 6.0 were 18.9±0.12, 23.4±0.04 mg g-1FW and 42.3, 20.0±0.3, 23.6±0.3 mg g-1 FW and 43.8 and 58.2 0.3, 71.2 0.3 mg g-1 FW and 129.4 respectively.

Conclusion: Physiological and morphological parameters studied responded negatively to simulated nitric acid (HNO3) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) rain with significant decrease at all acidity levels with respect to the control.

Research 3

Previously Unrecognized Primary Factors in the Demise of Endangered Torrey Pines: A Microcosm of Global Forest Die-offs

Objective: Forests worldwide are experiencing die-offs on an unprecedented scale. So too is the endangered Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana. Just as the global toxicity from acid rain was recognized and abatement measures taken, a new undisclosed source of atmospheric toxins from geoengineering rapidly escalated to near-global scale.  Published forensic evidence is consistent with coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste-product of coal-burning, being the main particulate used for geoengineering. The objective of this paper is to disclose unrecognized primary factors arising from geoengineering which underlie the demise of Torrey Pines and global forest die-offs.

Methods: Snow and fog water samples collected after aerial spraying were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and interpreted in light of extensive field observations.

Results: Atmospheric moisture extracts many elements in water-soluble form from aerosolized CFA, including aluminum, which is hazardous to many biota, especially trees. Needles and leaves trap toxin-laden atmospheric moisture, and concentrate it by evaporation. Additionally, toxin-concentrate evaporates on needles and leaves, adversely affecting respiration. Eventually, the re-solubilized toxin-concentrate falls to the ground and enters the root system. This is one of the primary factors which underlie the demise of Torrey Pines and forest die-offs worldwide. Another primary factor is enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation, which is caused, we posit, in part by disruption of atmospheric ozone by aerosolized CFA, which contains ozone-killing chlorine in variable amounts ranging as high as 25,000 µg/g. Together, these primary debilitating factors weaken trees’ natural defenses and make them vulnerable to insects, such as bark beetles, fungal infections, and other biotic factors.

Conclusion: We disclose a natural mechanism whereby trees’ needles and leaves concentrate toxins extracted by moisture from aerosolized coal fly ash used for intentional, man-made weather and climate change. This form of deliberate air pollution must be halted to preserve Earth’s forests.

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